internet and web browser pdf

Internet And Web Browser Pdf

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A web server is a computer that runs websites.

The World Wide Web is not synonymous with the Internet, which pre-dated the Web in some form by over two decades and upon which technologies the Web is built. The Web began to enter everyday use in , when websites for general use started to become available.

Securing Your Web Browser

The World Wide Web is not synonymous with the Internet, which pre-dated the Web in some form by over two decades and upon which technologies the Web is built.

The Web began to enter everyday use in , when websites for general use started to become available. In addition to text , web pages may contain references to images , video , audio , and software components which are either displayed or internally executed in the user's web browser to render pages or streams of multimedia content.

Multiple web resources with a common theme and usually a common domain name , make up a website. Websites are stored in computers that are running a web server , which is a program that responds to requests made over the Internet from web browsers running on a user's computer. Website content can be provided by a publisher, or interactively from user-generated content.

Websites are provided for a myriad of informative, entertainment, commercial, and governmental reasons. Tim Berners-Lee 's vision of a global hyperlinked information system became a possibility by the second half of the s. While working at CERN, Berners-Lee became frustrated with the inefficiencies and difficulties posed by finding information stored on different computers. There is no reason, the proposal continues, why such hypertext links could not encompass multimedia documents including graphics, speech and video, so that Berners-Lee goes on to use the term hypermedia.

With help from his colleague and fellow hypertext enthusiast Robert Cailliau he published a more formal proposal on 12 November to build a "Hypertext project" called "WorldWideWeb" one word, abbreviated 'W3' as a "web" of "hypertext documents" to be viewed by " browsers " using a client—server architecture. While the read-only goal was met, accessible authorship of web content took longer to mature, with the wiki concept, WebDAV , blogs , Web 2.

The Dynatext system, licensed by CERN , was a key player in the extension of SGML ISO to Hypermedia within HyTime , but it was considered too expensive and had an inappropriate licensing policy for use in the general high energy physics community, namely a fee for each document and each document alteration. By Christmas , Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web: [20] the first web browser WorldWideWeb , which was a web editor as well and the first web server.

The first website, [21] which described the project itself, was published on 20 December Jones stored it on a magneto-optical drive and on his NeXT computer. As another example of such confusion, several news media reported that the first photo on the Web was published by Berners-Lee in , an image of the CERN house band Les Horribles Cernettes taken by Silvano de Gennaro; Gennaro has disclaimed this story, writing that media were "totally distorting our words for the sake of cheap sensationalism".

Both Nelson and Engelbart were in turn inspired by Vannevar Bush 's microfilm -based memex , which was described in the essay " As We May Think ". Berners-Lee's breakthrough was to marry hypertext to the Internet. In his book Weaving The Web , he explains that he had repeatedly suggested to members of both technical communities that a marriage between the two technologies was possible.

But, when no one took up his invitation, he finally assumed the project himself. In the process, he developed three essential technologies:. The World Wide Web had several differences from other hypertext systems available at the time.

The Web required only unidirectional links rather than bidirectional ones, making it possible for someone to link to another resource without action by the owner of that resource. It also significantly reduced the difficulty of implementing web servers and browsers in comparison to earlier systems , but in turn presented the chronic problem of link rot. Unlike predecessors such as HyperCard , the World Wide Web was non-proprietary, making it possible to develop servers and clients independently and to add extensions without licensing restrictions.

The Web began to enter general use in , when websites for everyday use started to become available. Mosaic's graphical user interface allowed the Web to become by far the most popular protocol on the Internet.

By the end of , the total number of websites was still relatively small, but many notable websites were already active that foreshadowed or inspired today's most popular services. Connected by the Internet, other websites were created around the world.

This motivated international standards development for protocols and formatting. Berners-Lee continued to stay involved in guiding the development of web standards, such as the markup languages to compose web pages and he advocated his vision of a Semantic Web.

The World Wide Web enabled the spread of information over the Internet through an easy-to-use and flexible format. It thus played an important role in popularising use of the Internet.

The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used without much distinction. However, the two terms do not mean the same thing. The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks. In contrast, the World Wide Web is a global collection of documents and other resources , linked by hyperlinks and URIs. Viewing a web page on the World Wide Web normally begins either by typing the URL of the page into a web browser or by following a hyperlink to that page or resource.

The web browser then initiates a series of background communication messages to fetch and display the requested page. In the s, using a browser to view web pages—and to move from one web page to another through hyperlinks—came to be known as 'browsing,' 'web surfing' after channel surfing , or 'navigating the Web'. Early studies of this new behaviour investigated user patterns in using web browsers. One study, for example, found five user patterns: exploratory surfing, window surfing, evolved surfing, bounded navigation and targeted navigation.

The browser resolves the server name of the URL example. This lookup returns an IP address such as The browser then requests the resource by sending an HTTP request across the Internet to the computer at that address. It requests service from a specific TCP port number that is well known for the HTTP service, so that the receiving host can distinguish an HTTP request from other network protocols it may be servicing. The content of the HTTP request can be as simple as two lines of text:.

The computer receiving the HTTP request delivers it to web server software listening for requests on port If the web server can fulfil the request it sends an HTTP response back to the browser indicating success:.

Many web pages use HTML to reference the URLs of other resources such as images, other embedded media, scripts that affect page behaviour, and Cascading Style Sheets that affect page layout. As it receives their content from the web server, the browser progressively renders the page onto the screen as specified by its HTML and these additional resources. Web browsers receive HTML documents from a web server or from local storage and render the documents into multimedia web pages.

HTML describes the structure of a web page semantically and originally included cues for the appearance of the document. With HTML constructs, images and other objects such as interactive forms may be embedded into the rendered page. HTML provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links , quotes and other items.

HTML elements are delineated by tags , written using angle brackets. Browsers do not display the HTML tags, but use them to interpret the content of the page. HTML can embed programs written in a scripting language such as JavaScript , which affects the behavior and content of web pages. Inclusion of CSS defines the look and layout of content. Most web pages contain hyperlinks to other related pages and perhaps to downloadable files, source documents, definitions and other web resources.

Such a collection of useful, related resources, interconnected via hypertext links is dubbed a web of information. The hyperlink structure of the web is described by the webgraph : the nodes of the web graph correspond to the web pages or URLs the directed edges between them to the hyperlinks. Over time, many web resources pointed to by hyperlinks disappear, relocate, or are replaced with different content. This makes hyperlinks obsolete, a phenomenon referred to in some circles as link rot, and the hyperlinks affected by it are often called dead links.

The ephemeral nature of the Web has prompted many efforts to archive web sites. The Internet Archive , active since , is the best known of such efforts. Many hostnames used for the World Wide Web begin with www because of the long-standing practice of naming Internet hosts according to the services they provide.

The hostname of a web server is often www , in the same way that it may be ftp for an FTP server , and news or nntp for a Usenet news server. The use of www is not required by any technical or policy standard and many web sites do not use it; the first web server was nxoc Many established websites still use the prefix, or they employ other subdomain names such as www2 , secure or en for special purposes. Many such web servers are set up so that both the main domain name e.

The use of a subdomain name is useful for load balancing incoming web traffic by creating a CNAME record that points to a cluster of web servers. Since, currently, only a subdomain can be used in a CNAME, the same result cannot be achieved by using the bare domain root.

When a user submits an incomplete domain name to a web browser in its address bar input field, some web browsers automatically try adding the prefix "www" to the beginning of it and possibly ". This feature started appearing in early versions of Firefox , when it still had the working title 'Firebird' in early , from an earlier practice in browsers such as Lynx.

In English, www is usually read as double-u double-u double-u. Stephen Fry, in his "Podgrams" series of podcasts, pronounces it wuh wuh wuh. Tim Berners-Lee's web-space states that World Wide Web is officially spelled as three separate words, each capitalised, with no intervening hyphens. They specify the communication protocol to use for the request and response. A web page also written as webpage is a document that is suitable for the World Wide Web and web browsers.

A web browser displays a web page on a monitor or mobile device. The term web page usually refers to what is visible, but may also refer to the contents of the computer file itself, which is usually a text file containing hypertext written in HTML or a comparable markup language. Typical web pages provide hypertext for browsing to other web pages via hyperlinks , often referred to as links.

Web browsers will frequently have to access multiple web resource elements, such as reading style sheets , scripts , and images, while presenting each web page. On a network, a web browser can retrieve a web page from a remote web server. The web server may restrict access to a private network such as a corporate intranet. A static web page is delivered exactly as stored, as web content in the web server's file system. In contrast, a dynamic web page is generated by a web application , usually driven by server-side software.

Dynamic web pages are used when each user may require completely different information, for example, bank websites, web email etc. Consequently, a static web page displays the same information for all users, from all contexts, subject to modern capabilities of a web server to negotiate content-type or language of the document where such versions are available and the server is configured to do so.

A server-side dynamic web page is a web page whose construction is controlled by an application server processing server-side scripts. In server-side scripting, parameters determine how the assembly of every new web page proceeds, including the setting up of more client-side processing. A client-side dynamic web page processes the web page using HTML scripting running in the browser as it loads.

The same client-side techniques can then dynamically update or change the DOM in the same way. A dynamic web page is then reloaded by the user or by a computer program to change some variable content. The updating information could come from the server, or from changes made to that page's DOM. This may or may not truncate the browsing history or create a saved version to go back to, but a dynamic web page update using Ajax technologies will neither create a page to go back to, nor truncate the web browsing history forward of the displayed page.

Using Ajax technologies the end user gets one dynamic page managed as a single page in the web browser while the actual web content rendered on that page can vary.

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This whitepaper explains the underlying infrastructure and technologies that make the Internet work. It does not go into great depth, but covers enough of each area to give a basic understanding of the concepts involved. For any unanswered questions, a list of resources is provided at the end of the paper. Any comments, suggestions, questions, etc. Where to Begin?

Request PDF | Web Browsers | A Web browser is a software application that runs on a user's computer or other Internet-capable device through.

Web - Browser Types

Unless the default settings have been changed, most browser applications store frequently visited site information cache , and cookies for faster access. If either of these solutions are unsuccessful, contact your agency IT support staff. Point to Safety , and then click Delete browsing history. Select Internet Options, then click the Security tab.

In this article, we describe various web-related concepts: web pages, websites, web servers, and search engines. These terms are often confused by newcomers to the web or are incorrectly used. Let's learn what they each mean! As with any area of knowledge, the web comes with a lot of jargon.

Web Browsers are software installed on your PC. Currently you must be using any sort of Web browser while you are navigating through our site tutorialspoint. On the Web, when you navigate through pages of information, this is commonly known as web browsing or web surfing. You might be interested in knowing Complete Browser Statistics.

This article will help you configure your web browser for safer Internet surfing. It is written for home computer users, students, small business workers, and any other person who works with limited information technology IT support and broadband.

What is the difference between webpage, website, web server, and search engine?

 Агент Смит, - прервал помощника директор.  - Почему вы считаете, будто Танкадо не знал, что на него совершено покушение. Смит откашлялся.

 В чем же проблема? - Джабба сделал глоток своей жгучей приправы. - Передо мной лежит отчет, из которого следует, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ бьется над каким-то файлом уже восемнадцать часов и до сих пор не вскрыл шифр. Джабба обильно полил приправой кусок пирога на тарелке. - Что-что. - Как это тебе нравится. Он аккуратно размазал приправу кончиком салфетки.

Час сорок пять ночи. Он в недоумении посмотрел на двухцветного. - Ты сказал - в два ночи.

Когда он бывал раздражен, а это было почти всегда, его черные глаза горели как угли. Он поднялся по служебной лестнице до высшего поста в агентстве потому, что работал не покладая рук, но также и благодаря редкой целеустремленности и заслуженному уважению со стороны своих предшественников. Он был первым афроамериканцем на посту директора Агентства национальной безопасности, но эту его отличительную черту никто никогда даже не упоминал, потому что политическая партия, которую он поддерживал, решительно не принимала этого во внимание, и его коллеги следовали этому примеру. Фонтейн заставил Мидж и Бринкерхоффа стоять, пока сам он молча совершал свой обычный ритуал заваривания кофе сорта Гватемальская ява.

 - И он положил конверт на стойку. Консьерж взглянул на конверт и что-то грустно пробормотал себе под нос. Еще один любитель молоденьких девочек, - подумал .

Девушка обвила его руками. - Это лето было такое ужасное, - говорила она, чуть не плача.  - Я вам так признательна.

Беккер мрачно оглядел море красно-бело-синих причесок. - Что у них с волосами? - превозмогая боль, спросил он, показывая рукой на остальных пассажиров.  - Они все… - Красно-бело-синие? - подсказал парень. Беккер кивнул, стараясь не смотреть на серебряную дужку в верхней губе парня.

Хейл теряет самообладание, и у него всего два выхода: выбраться из шифровалки или сесть за решетку. Внутренний голос подсказывал ей, что лучше всего было бы дождаться звонка Дэвида и использовать его ключ, но она понимала, что он может его и не найти. Сьюзан задумалась о том, почему он задерживается так долго, но ей пришлось забыть о тревоге за него и двигаться вслед за шефом. Стратмор бесшумно спускался по ступенькам. Незачем настораживать Хейла, давать ему знать, что они идут.

 Забавно, - сказала.  - Последний файл из намеченных на вчера был загружен в одиннадцать сорок. - И .


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