antioxidants in health and disease pdf

Antioxidants In Health And Disease Pdf

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Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit oxidation. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals , thereby leading to chain reactions that may damage the cells of organisms.

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or slow damage to cells caused by free radicals, unstable molecules that the body produces as a reaction to environmental and other pressures. The sources of antioxidants can be natural or artificial.

Antioxidants in Health, Disease and Aging

Antioxidants are substances that may protect your cells against free radicals, which may play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases. Free radicals are molecules produced when your body breaks down food or when you're exposed to tobacco smoke or radiation. Antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E and carotenoids, may help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Other naturally occurring antioxidants include flavonoids, tannins, phenols and lignans. Plant-based foods are the best sources. These include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, herbs and spices, and even cocoa. As a bonus, fruits, vegetables and whole grains high in antioxidants are also typically high in fiber, low in saturated fat and cholesterol, and good sources of vitamins and minerals.

US Pharm. Antioxidants help protect human body cells from the formation of radicals. They comprise vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and natural products. Radicals, also known as free radicals , are molecules with one unpaired electron or two or more unpaired electrons that do not interact with one another. Oxygen-derived free radicals are aggressive and toxic and are produced typically during cell metabolism.

Author s : Mark E. Yendluri , Hector H. DOI : There is growing scientific agreement that antioxidants, particularly the polyphenolic forms, may help lower the incidence of disease, such as certain cancers, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, DNA damage, or even have anti-aging properties. On the other hand, questions remain as to whether some antioxidants or phytochemicals potentially could do more harm than good, as an increase in glycation-mediated protein damage carbonyl stress and some risk has been reported. Nevertheless, the quest for healthy aging has led to the use of antioxidants as a means to disrupt age-associated deterioration in physiological function, dysregulated metabolic processes or prevention of many age-related diseases. Although a diet rich in polyphenolic forms of antioxidants does seem to offer hope in delaying the onset of age-related disorders, it is still too early to define their exact clinical benefit for treating age-related disease.

Free radicals, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in human health and disease

Oxidative stress is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in your body. Free radicals are oxygen-containing molecules with an uneven number of electrons. The uneven number allows them to easily react with other molecules. Free radicals can cause large chain chemical reactions in your body because they react so easily with other molecules. These reactions are called oxidation. They can be beneficial or harmful. Antioxidants are molecules that can donate an electron to a free radical without making themselves unstable.

Delanty N, Dichter MA. Antioxidant Therapy in Neurologic Disease. Arch Neurol. Free radical or oxidative injury may be a fundamental mechanism underlying a number of human neurologic diseases. Therapy using free radical scavengers antioxidants has the potential to prevent, delay, or ameliorate many neurologic disorders. However, the biochemistry of oxidative pathobiology is complex, and optimum antioxidant therapeutic options may vary and need to be tailored to individual diseases. In vitro and animal model studies support the potential beneficial role of various antioxidant compounds in neurologic disease.

Antioxidant Therapy in Neurologic Disease

Free radicals and other reactive oxygen species ROS are constantly formed in the human body. Free-radical mechanisms have been implicated in the pathology of several human diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, malaria, and rheumatoid arthritis and neurodegenerative diseases. Catalases in peroxisomes convert H 2 O 2 into water and O 2 and help to dispose of H 2 O 2 generated by the action of the oxidase enzymes that are located in these organelles. Other important H 2 O 2 -removing enzymes in human cells are the glutathione peroxidases.

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