what are dependent and independent variables in research pdf

What Are Dependent And Independent Variables In Research Pdf

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The purpose of all research is to describe and explain variance in the world. Variance is simply the difference; that is, variation that occurs naturally in the world or change that we create as a result of a manipulation.

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Ordinal, interval, and ratio variables are quantitative. Height in inches and scores on a test would be examples of quantitative variables. Generally speaking, categorical variables. Independent Experimental, Manipulated, Treatment, Grouping Variable- That factor which is measured, manipulated, or selected by the experimenter to determine its relationship to an observed phenomenon.

They are either manipulated by the researcher or are observed by the researcher so that their values can be related to that of the dependent variable. While the independent variable is often manipulated by the researcher, it can also be a classification where subjects are assigned to groups.

In a study where one variable causes the other, the independent variable is the cause. In a study where groups are being compared, the independent variable is the group classification. Dependent Outcome Variable- That factor which is observed and measured to determine the effect of the independent variable, i.

It is the consequent variable that is presumably affected by one or more independent variables that are either manipulated by the researcher or observed by the researcher and regarded as antecedent conditions that determine the value of the dependent variable. The dependent variable is the outcome. In an experiment, it may be what was caused or what changed as a result of the study.

In a comparison of groups, it is what they differ on. Moderator Variable- That factor which is measured, manipulated, or selected by the experimenter to discover whether it modifies the relationship of the independent variable to an observed phenomenon.

It is a special type of independent variable. That condition is the moderator variable. In a study of two methods of teaching reading, one of the methods of teaching reading may work better with boys than girls. Method of teaching reading is the independent variable and reading achievement is the dependent variable. Gender is the moderator variable because it moderates or changes the relationship between the independent variable teaching method and the dependent variable reading achievement.

The students are randomly assigned to either whole language instruction or phonics instruction. There are students of high and low SES in each group.

Later you will learn in statistics that this is an interaction effect. In this study, language instruction was the independent variable with two levels: phonics and whole language. SES was the moderator variable with two levels: high and low. With a moderator variable, we find the type of instruction did make a difference, but it worked differently for the two groups on the moderator variable.

We select this moderator variable because we think it is a variable that will moderate the effect of the independent on the dependent. We make this decision before we start the study.

If the moderator had not been in the study above, we would have said that there was no difference in reading achievement between the two types of reading instruction. This would have happened because the average of the high and low scores of each SES group within a reading instruction group would cancel each other an produce what appears to be average reading achievement in each instruction group i. If we just look at the averages without regard to the moderator , it appears that the instruction types produced similar results.

Extraneous Variable- Those factors which cannot be controlled. Extraneous variables are independent variables that have not been controlled.

They may or may not influence the results. One way to control an extraneous variable which might influence the results is to make it a constant keep everyone in the study alike on that characteristic. Null Hypothesis: Students who receive pizza coupons as a reward do not read more books than students who do not receive pizza coupon rewards. High achieving students do not perform better than low achieving student when writing stories regardless of whether they use paper and pencil or a word processor.

When we are testing whether something influences something else, the influence cause is the independent variable. The independent variable is also the one we manipulate. Therefore, the independent variable is teacher pay it has two levels— high pay and low pay. The dependent variable what the groups differ on is attitude towards school. We could also approach this another way. Therefore, teacher pay is the independent variable cause and attitude towards school is the dependent variable outcome.

Research Questions and Hypotheses. The research question drives the study. It should specifically state what is being investigated. Statisticians often convert their research questions to null and alternative hypotheses. The null hypothesis states that no relationship correlation study or difference experimental study exists. Converting research questions to hypotheses is a simple task. Take the questions and make it a positive statement that says a relationship exists correlation studies or a difference exists experiment study between the groups and we have the alternative hypothesis.

Research Question for Relationships: Is there a relationship between height and weight? A directional hypothesis is one where the researcher states which group she believes will perform better. Most researchers use nondirectional hypotheses. Directional Research Question for Differences: Do boys like reading more than girls? Del Siegle, Ph. Neag School of Education — University of Connecticut del. UConn A-Z. Generally speaking, categorical variables Categorical variables are groups…such as gender or type of degree sought.

Quantitative variables are numbers that have a range…like weight in pounds or baskets made during a ball game. When we analyze data we do turn the categorical variables into numbers but only for identification purposes…e.

With quantitative data having a higher number means you have more of something. So higher values have meaning. Variables have different purposes or roles… Independent Experimental, Manipulated, Treatment, Grouping Variable- That factor which is measured, manipulated, or selected by the experimenter to determine its relationship to an observed phenomenon.

Here are some examples similar to your homework: Null Hypothesis: Students who receive pizza coupons as a reward do not read more books than students who do not receive pizza coupon rewards.

Independent Variable: Reward Status Dependent Variable: Number of Books Read High achieving students do not perform better than low achieving student when writing stories regardless of whether they use paper and pencil or a word processor. Research Questions and Hypotheses The research question drives the study. Format for sample research questions and accompanying hypotheses: Research Question for Relationships: Is there a relationship between height and weight?

Categorical variables are groups…such as gender or type of degree sought.

Independent and dependent variables

The dependent variable is the variable that is being measured or tested in an experiment. For example, in a study looking at how tutoring impacts test scores, the dependent variable would be the participants' test scores, since that is what is being measured. In a psychology experiment , researchers are looking at how changes in the independent variable cause changes in the dependent variable. One way to help identify the dependent variable is to remember that it depends on the independent variable. When researchers make changes to the independent variable, they then measure any resulting changes to the dependent variable. As you are learning to identify the dependent variables in an experiment, it can be helpful to look at examples. Here are just a few examples of psychology research using dependent and independent variables.

General Education. Independent and dependent variables are important for both math and science. If you don't understand what these two variables are and how they differ, you'll struggle to analyze an experiment or plot equations. Fortunately, we make learning these concepts easy! In this guide, we break down what independent and dependent variables are , give examples of the variables in actual experiments, explain how to properly graph them, provide a quiz to test your skills, and discuss the one other important variable you need to know. A variable is something you're trying to measure. It can be practically anything, such as objects, amounts of time, feelings, events, or ideas.

Printable PDF k. Answer: A variable is an object, event, idea, feeling, time period, or any other type of category you are trying to measure. There are two types of variables-independent and dependent. Answer: An independent variable is exactly what it sounds like. It is a variable that stands alone and isn't changed by the other variables you are trying to measure.


It then | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. independent variable and dependent variable, providing examples.


Dependent Variable in Experiments

This paper explores different ways to operationalise properties of the welfare state as explanatory variable in multilevel frameworks. Based on the observation that many common applications of welfare state measurements as independent macro-level variables lack standardised proceeding, differences between commonly used approaches single indicators, regime typologies, and composite indices are examined concerning their consequences for empirical results and their comparability. Each approach is first discussed regarding conceptual premises and practical applications in the literature. In a second step, differences are demonstrated empirically by performing several multilevel analyses using welfare attitudes as an exemplary dependent variable. The comparison shows that even slight differences in the operationalisation have an impact on the results and their explanatory contribution.

Dependent Variable in Experiments

By Dr. Saul McLeod , updated Variables are given a special name that only applies to experimental investigations. One is called the dependent variable and the other the independent variable. The independent variable is the variable the experimenter manipulates or changes, and is assumed to have a direct effect on the dependent variable. For example, allocating participants to either drug or placebo conditions independent variable in order to measure any changes in the intensity of their anxiety dependent variable.

Published on May 20, by Lauren Thomas. Revised on March 2, In research, variables are any characteristics that can take on different values, such as height, age, species, or exam score. In scientific research, we often want to study the effect of one variable on another one.

Our websites may use cookies to personalize and enhance your experience. By continuing without changing your cookie settings, you agree to this collection. For more information, please see our University Websites Privacy Notice. Currently, the term participant rather than subject is used when describing the people from whom we collect data. Ordinal, interval, and ratio variables are quantitative.


obtained in the context of change in independent variable. In this way, we can say that value of dependent variable may change due to change in.


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 - Дэвид… Все пришли в смятение. Сьюзан шла вперед, повторяя это имя, ее глаза неотрывно смотрели на экран. - Дэвид! - воскликнула она, еле держась на ногах.  - О, Дэвид… как они могли… Фонтейн растерялся: - Вы знаете этого человека. Сьюзан застыла в полутора метрах от экрана, ошеломленная увиденным, и все называла имя человека, которого любила. ГЛАВА 115 В голове Дэвида Беккера была бесконечная пустота. Я умер.

 - Увы, в мире полно наивных людей, которые не могут представить себе ужасы, которые нас ждут, если мы будем сидеть сложа руки. Я искренне верю, что только мы можем спасти этих людей от их собственного невежества. Сьюзан не совсем понимала, к чему он клонит.

Так начал обретать форму второй план. Стратмор вдруг увидел шанс выиграть на двух фронтах сразу, осуществить две мечты, а не одну. В шесть тридцать в то утро он позвонил Дэвиду Беккеру. ГЛАВА 97 Фонтейн стремительно вбежал в комнату для заседаний.

Это чувство было очень приятно, ничто не должно было его омрачить. И его ничто не омрачало. Их отношения развивались медленно и романтично: встречи украдкой, если позволяли дела, долгие прогулки по университетскому городку, чашечка капуччино у Мерлутти поздно вечером, иногда лекции и концерты. Сьюзан вдруг поняла, что стала смеяться гораздо чаще, чем раньше. Казалось, не было на свете ничего, что Дэвид не мог бы обратить в шутку.

 Очень хорошенькие? - повторил он с нарочитым немецким акцентом.  - Рыженькие. - Да, а как зовут вашего брата.

1 comments

Lirienne M.

To properly identify the key differences between dependent and independent variables, we need to first understand what variables are.

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