cognitive and neural foundations of religious belief pdf

Cognitive And Neural Foundations Of Religious Belief Pdf

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Cognitive flexibility is operationalized in the neuropsychological literature as the ability to shift between modes of thinking and adapt to novel or changing environments. Religious belief systems consist of strict rules and rituals that offer adherents certainty, consistency, and stability. The present study investigated the extent to which tendencies towards cognitive flexibility versus persistence are related to three facets of religious life: religious affiliation, religious practice, and religious upbringing.

Cognitive and neural foundations of religious belief

While religious faith remains one of the most significant features of human life, little is known about its relationship to ordinary belief at the level of the brain. Nor is it known whether religious believers and nonbelievers differ in how they evaluate statements of fact. Our lab previously has used functional neuroimaging to study belief as a general mode of cognition [1] , and others have looked specifically at religious belief [2]. However, no research has compared these two states of mind directly. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI to measure signal changes in the brains of thirty subjects—fifteen committed Christians and fifteen nonbelievers—as they evaluated the truth and falsity of religious and nonreligious propositions. This region showed greater signal whether subjects believed statements about God, the Virgin Birth, etc. A comparison of both stimulus categories suggests that religious thinking is more associated with brain regions that govern emotion, self-representation, and cognitive conflict, while thinking about ordinary facts is more reliant upon memory retrieval networks.

A strong personal relationship with God is theoretically and empirically associated with an enhanced sense of control. While a growing body of research is focused on understanding the neural mechanisms underlying religious belief, little is known about the brain basis of the link between a personal relationship with God and sense of control. We also examined potential mediators for these associations. Voxel-based lesion symptom mapping revealed that damage to the right vmPFC resulted in a stronger personal relationship with God, and patients with damage to this region demonstrated an increased sense of control relative to patients with damage to posterior cortex and healthy controls. Moreover, the association between vmPFC damage and greater perceived sense of control was mediated by a stronger personal relationship with God. Collectively, these results suggest that a strong personal relationship with God can serve an important psychological function by affecting sense of control, with both enhanced following damage to the right vmPFC.

Cognitive and neural foundations of religious belief

People cleave to ideological convictions with greater intensity in the aftermath of threat. The posterior medial frontal cortex pMFC plays a key role in both detecting discrepancies between desired and current conditions and adjusting subsequent behavior to resolve such conflicts. Building on prior literature examining the role of the pMFC in shifts in relatively low-level decision processes, we demonstrate that the pMFC mediates adjustments in adherence to political and religious ideologies. We presented participants with a reminder of death and a critique of their in-group ostensibly written by a member of an out-group, then experimentally decreased both avowed belief in God and out-group derogation by downregulating pMFC activity via transcranial magnetic stimulation. The results provide the first evidence that group prejudice and religious belief are susceptible to targeted neuromodulation, and point to a shared cognitive mechanism underlying concrete and abstract decision processes.

Cognitive flexibility and religious disbelief

People rapidly form evaluative impressions of other people from minimal information. In the last decade, many cognitive neuroscience studies have explored the neural underpinnings of how impressions of other people, or person impressions, are made. This chapter reviews studies on the forming of impressions from facial appearance and from behavioral information. Across studies on impressions made from facial appearance, the most consistently activated brain regions include the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, medial orbitofrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex PFC , and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex. Across studies on impressions made from behavioral information, the most consistently activated region is the dorsomedial PFC.

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Most humans believe in a god, but many do not.

Он не хотел доверять машине предназначавшиеся ей слова. Выйдя на улицу, Беккер увидел у входа в парк телефонную будку. Он чуть ли не бегом бросился к ней, схватил трубку и вставил в отверстие телефонную карту. Соединения долго не .

Cognitive flexibility and religious disbelief

Alexander T. Todorov and Peter Mende-Siedlecki

 Может быть, хочешь воды. Она не нашлась что ответить. И проклинала. Как я могла не выключить монитор. Сьюзан понимала: как только Хейл заподозрит, что она искала что-то в его компьютере, то сразу же поймет, что подлинное лицо Северной Дакоты раскрыто.

Она бежала короткими испуганными прыжками, волоча по кафельному полу туристскую сумку. Беккер хотел подняться на ноги, но у него не было на это сил. Ослепленные глаза горели огнем. Он хотел крикнуть, но в легких не было воздуха, с губ срывалось лишь невнятное мычание. - Нет! - закашлявшись, исторгнул он из груди.

По-испански говорила очень плохо. - Она не испанка? - спросил Беккер. - Нет. Думаю, англичанка. И с какими-то дикими волосами - красно-бело-синими.

Расскажи это Чатрукьяну. Стратмор подошел ближе. - Чатрукьян мертв. - Да неужели.

Возле фреоновых помп. Сьюзан повернулась и направилась к двери, но на полпути оглянулась. - Коммандер, - сказала.  - Это еще не конец. Мы еще не проиграли.

Танкадо прислал нам письмо. ГЛАВА 122 - Шесть минут! - крикнул техник. Сьюзан отдала приказ: - Перепечатайте сверху. Нужно читать по вертикали, а не по горизонтали.

 Конечно, нет! - возмущенно ответила девушка. Она смотрела на него невинными глазами, и Беккер почувствовал, что она держит его за дурака.  - Да будет .

Джабба заглянул в распечатку. - Вот что я хочу сказать. Червь Танкадо не нацелен на наш банк данных.  - Он откашлялся.  - Он нацелен на фильтры безопасности.

Джабба вздохнул и снова вытер пот со лба. По выражению его лица было ясно: то, что он собирается сказать, не понравится директору и остальным.

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