Population Growth And Development In Africa Pdf
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- Population and Development in Africa
- The African population growth and development conundrum.
- [African population growth: status and prospects]
Strengthening the home-to-facility continuum of newborn and child health care through mHealth: Evidence from an intervention in rural Malawi Jean Christophe Fotso,Linda Vesel,Zachariah Jezman. Background: The consequences of rapid population growth for development and policy options for addressing undesirable population trends remain at the core of demographic enquiry in developed and developing countries. In this paper, we re-examine the data on the particular relationship between population trends in sub-Saharan Africa and economic growth and development.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Corpus ID: The African population growth and development conundrum.
Population and Development in Africa
In recent years an increasing number of African people are being added every year This was not always the cas these population increases are unprecedented in history. If development entails the improvement in people's level of living - their incomes, health, education and general well-being - and if it also encompasses their self esteem, respect dignity and freedom of choice then the really impotant question about population growth is how does the contemporary population situation in many African countries contribute to or detract from their chances of realizing the goals of development, not only for the current generation but also for the future generations?
Conversely, how does development affect population growth? To extent does rapid population increase make it more difficult to provide essential social services including housing, transport, sanitation, and security? Will employment opportunities be plentiful or will it be a major achievement just to keep unemployment levels from rising?
Will world food supply and its distributon be sufficient not only to meet the anticipated population increasein the coming decades but also to improve nutritional levels to the point where all humans can have an adequate diet? Is there a relationship between poverty and family size? Population trends if favourable, open man's options and enlarge his choices. This what the concern about population is about, or ought to be.
Over the last one century Africa's population has grown at a rapid rate. The various estimates of the population size of Africa indicate that prior to , the annual growth rate of population was less tharl 0.
These data SllOW that the recent demograrphic trends in Africa are characterized not only by unprecederlted rapid growtla rates but also t y tile associated youthful age cor zositir Africa faces a major population explosion in the near future. Africa's population which was estimated at million in had increased to million by In the population of the continent was estimated at mill on.
The average annual growth rate during the decade was 3. The associated numbers of urban dwellers will be million; children , million; active population , million; and school age million primary million secondary and million tertiary. Thus the prospects of a new and better demographic setting that will not bring about unsustainable pressures and tensions but will rather ensure the progress and prosperity of all African countries seem rather remote during the next 14 years as drastic structural changes in the demographic situation take a long time.
The costs of rapid population growth are cumulative: more births today make the task of slowing population growth later difficult, as today's children become tomorrow's parents.
In general, food supplies and agricultural producrion must be greatly increased to meet the needs of a rapidly growing population, this limits the allocaton of resources to other economic and social sectors, Secondly, the rappid increase in population means that there will be an increase in the dependency ratio. This implies that the country concerned will have to allocate increasing resources to feed, clothe, house and educate the useful component of the population which consumes but dopes not produce goods and services.
Thirdly, a rapidly growing popuiation has serious implications for the provision of productive employment Since the rapid population growth is normally accompanied by a proportionalte increase in the supply of the labour force, it means that the rate of job creation should match the rate of supply of the labour force In Africa the rate of labour force supply has outstripped that of job creation,implying that the rates of unemployment have been increasing rapidly In other words, the number of people seeking employrnent increases more rapicily than the number of available jobs.
This kind of situation poses a menacing problem for society. The end results are low saving rates and low labor skills, both of which enhibit the full development and utilization of natural resources in some African countries. In other countries, the growing population would outrun the levels at which renewable resources could be sustanined, and the resource bases would detoriorate.
Rapid population growth rates also have ramifications for political and social conflicts among different ethnic, religious, linguistic and social groups.
As population growth rapidly, there will be increasing demands for governmental services in health, education, welfare and other functions cause of or even the major contributing factor in violence aggression, the large proportions of young people, particularly htose unemployed or have little hope for a satisfactory future, might form disruptive and potentially explosive political force. The cost adequacy and nature of health and welfate services might be affected by rapid population growth in much the same way as are those of educational services.
In the the individual family death and illness might be increased by high fertility easy and frequent pregnancies, and the necessity of caring for excessive numbers of children. It should also be noted that the physical and mental development of children are often retarced in large families because of in adequate nutition and the prevelance of diseases associated with povery, and also because the childten are provided of sufficient adult contact.
Another major consequence of rapid Africa's population growth is the phenomenal growth rate of urban population. Without adequate provision of housing facilities, the rapid population growth rate will result in poor and crowded housing in the urban slums of the rapidly growing cities, and this could also produce further social problems.
Rapid urbanization has also caused stresses in many African economies. Nevertheless, during the past generation, urbanization has increased at an alarming pace.
In fact, there were only two cities in the continent with populations exceeding , in It should be noted that in , only Cairo had a population of more than 1,, in the entire African continent. Many migrants to the cities, however, have discovered that their prospects are not significantly improved by relocation, and unemployment and underemployment are rampant in every major city in Africa.
Increases in population cause a number of serious problems. With an average annual growth rate in agriculture of about 2. The socio-economic consequences of demographic evolution and vise-versa are extremely difficult to measure with accuracy. However, some studies have attempted to show the, relationship between population growth and socio-economic development.
The correlation matrix of population and socio-economic development for 50 Africancountries during the. The most important findings from these studies are:.
The relationship between the three variables show that the situation in Africa is critical. From the million hectares of forest, about 3. The demand for fire wood is increasing about the same rate of population growth 3. This degradation of environment has a negative repercussion on the agriculture production and among other things on the availability of water resources. The food deficit generated aggravated the malnutrition situation in African countries. The agriculture and economic stagnation impede the process of transition towards the lowering of fertility.
The rapid population growth affected also the satisfaction of immediate needs of the people and sustainable development. It is noted that population growth is closely correlated with the number of children per woman and in the countries where the primary school enrollment for girls is nigh it is found that the infant mortality is lower. Population growth affects the increase of urban areas through the process of n migration.
Therefore - this situation and realities which exist in our countries have become causes for the failure of our efforts in development. The correation matrix of fertility trends and contraception shows also that proportion of women using contraception are the most negatively correlated with fertility and was less degree to the proportion of children enrolled in secondary schools, the degree of urbanization, growth of GDP per capita and other factors.
African countries who have adopted the structural adjustment are those who have experienced lower GNP per capita, rapid demographic growth due to high fertility, high proportion of illiterate woman, slow decrease of infant mortality, high poverty, low rate of prevalence of contraception, rapid degradation of environment etc..
It also appears that the adoption of the structural adjustment programme by those African countries seem to have no amelioration in their critical situation they were experiencing before the adoption of structural adjustment programme.
The programme of action of ICPD which focused on the control of population growth mainly by means of family planning and contraceptives should take into consideration the socio-economic development aspect to reach objectives.
United Nations Population Fund. Search form Search. The Basic Issues: Population Growth and the Quality of Life In recent years an increasing number of African people are being added every year This was not always the cas these population increases are unprecedented in history. The major issues relationg to this basic question are the following: 1 The improvement in the level of living: Will African countries be capable of improving the levels of living for their people with the current and anticipated levels of population growth?
Africa's Demographic Features Over the last one century Africa's population has grown at a rapid rate. Consequences of rapid population growth in Africa. Inter-relationship between population growth and socio-economic development The socio-economic consequences of demographic evolution and vise-versa are extremely difficult to measure with accuracy.
The most important findings from these studies are: a Population, agriculture and environment The relationship between the three variables show that the situation in Africa is critical.
The African population growth and development conundrum.
Africa Toward pp Cite as. The population issue is an overriding factor in addressing these questions. After placing discussions on population and development policies in the African context, the relationships between demographic growth and development in Africa are analysed by examining the specific case of North Africa and the impact of human capital improvement upon demographic changes. This treatment of the current state of the population-development relationship in Africa enables us to present the different domains where uncertainties prevail and draw up possible medium-term trajectories concerning demographic change and development. The conclusion emphasises the regional dimensions of demo-economic relationships. Unable to display preview.
The rate of population growth influences socio-economic development which in turn affects the process of demographic growth. However, there is no inevitable.
[African population growth: status and prospects]
However, as an urban sociologist, the author will focus on the fifth development constraint and on the contrasting policies Tanzania and Kenya have devised in response to it. Even more relevant to the theme of this article, however, is the fact that by Tanzania had reached nearly the same level of urbanisation — 12 percent and 15 percent, respectively, as well as nearly the same concentration of urban population in their capital or primate cities—50 percent and 57 percent, respectively World Bank, Jo Huth, M. Report bugs here. Please share your general feedback.
In recent years an increasing number of African people are being added every year This was not always the cas these population increases are unprecedented in history. If development entails the improvement in people's level of living - their incomes, health, education and general well-being - and if it also encompasses their self esteem, respect dignity and freedom of choice then the really impotant question about population growth is how does the contemporary population situation in many African countries contribute to or detract from their chances of realizing the goals of development, not only for the current generation but also for the future generations? Conversely, how does development affect population growth? To extent does rapid population increase make it more difficult to provide essential social services including housing, transport, sanitation, and security?
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- Он улыбнулся. - Но на этот раз, - он вытянул левую руку так, чтобы она попала в камеру, и показал золотой ободок на безымянном пальце, - на этот раз у меня есть кольцо. ГЛАВА 116 - Читайте, мистер Беккер! - скомандовал Фонтейн.
У испанцев всегда было иное представление о плотности, чем у остального мира. Беккер оказался зажат между двумя полными женщинами с закрытыми глазами, предоставившими толпе нести их в собор. Они беззвучно молились, перебирая пальцами четки. Когда толпа приблизилась к мощным каменным стенам почти вплотную, Беккер снова попытался вырваться, но течение стало еще более интенсивным.
Ей стало плохо, когда она представила себе подобное развитие событий. Танкадо передает ключ победителю аукциона, и получившая его компания вскрывает Цифровую крепость. Затем она, наверное, вмонтирует алгоритм в защищенный чип, и через пять лет все компьютеры будут выпускаться с предустановленным чипом Цифровой крепости.
Его обгоревшие останки все еще виднелись на ребрах охлаждения.