food safety sanitation and personal hygiene pdf

Food Safety Sanitation And Personal Hygiene Pdf

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You go out to dinner at your favorite restaurant and a few hours later, you become very ill. Chances are you ate something that contained illness-causing bacteria or was improperly handled. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that one in six Americans are impacted each year by food poisoning.

All over the world people are seriously affected every day by diseases that are caused by consuming unhygienic and unsafe food. We have to give due emphasis to good hygienic practices to prevent and control foodborne diseases.

Personal Hygiene and Sanitary Food Handling

All over the world people are seriously affected every day by diseases that are caused by consuming unhygienic and unsafe food. We have to give due emphasis to good hygienic practices to prevent and control foodborne diseases. Foodborne diseases result from eating foods that contain infectious or toxic substances. The food we eat should be free from contaminants such as microorganisms and chemicals. This session will introduce the principles of food hygiene and safety.

You will also learn about food control, food inspection and supportive enforcement measures that can contribute to food hygiene and safety.

SAQ 7. In previous sessions of this Module, you have been introduced to the concept of hygiene, which was defined as the set of practices associated with the preservation of health. One important aspect of this is food hygiene , which refers to the many practices needed to safeguard the quality of food from production to consumption. It also includes the collection and disposal of food wastes. Throughout this chain of events there are many points where, directly or indirectly, knowingly or unknowingly, unwanted chemicals and microorganisms may contaminate the food.

Food safety is a closely related but broader concept that means food is free from all possible contaminants and hazards.

In practice both terms may be used interchangeably. Food hygiene is vital for creating and maintaining hygienic and healthy conditions for the production and consumption of the food that we eat. A traditional way of eating food at the household level in Ethiopia, injera with wot sauce , is shown in Figure 7.

Usually this type of meal is safe because it is food that is prepared to eat immediately. The overall purpose of food hygiene is to prepare and provide safe food and consequently contribute to a healthy and productive society. Food consists of edible materials such as meat, bread and vegetables; it may be raw like fresh fruit, Figure 7.

Food is a nutritious substance eaten by us to maintain our vital life processes. It is a fundamental need, a basic right and a prerequisite to good health. The Nutrition Module covers all the food groups in detail and how they are used by the body.

Food is essential for the existence of all living things. Our bodies need food for energy production, to survive and to remain strong. The health of children will be improved and they will grow taller if they are given a healthy, balanced diet rich in protein, energy and vitamins.

Foodstuffs are of two main kinds: organic carbohydrate, proteins, fats and inorganic water, various mineral elements and vitamins. The organic components are sources of energy for growth, cell multiplication, tissue repair, work and maintaining the vital processes of life.

The inorganic components are believed to facilitate the physiological functions of the body, such as the regulation of blood circulation and the nervous system. As well as being nutritious and balanced Figure 7. We should want to eat the food and have no cultural and social difficulties in eating it. Importantly, food should not contain harmful substances which are a risk to the health and wellbeing of the consumer.

Food is needed to provide energy for movement, work and maintaining vital functions of the body, e. Food is needed to repair and replace our body cells.

Food has always served an important function in the social interactions between people. In Ethiopia many social occasions are centred around food. During the many holidays, families prepare particular foods and drinks to celebrate the occasion. Food is also served at social events such as weddings and funerals.

On all of these occasions, food indirectly serves as an instrument to develop social bonds and relationships. In addition to nourishing the body and filling a need in our social life, food satisfies certain emotional needs.

People who travel to or live in a new land often find adjusting to the unfamiliar food and food customs a serious problem; they feel anguish and a longing for their customary food. Food can also be used to express feelings for example, the giving of food is a sign of friendship.

Serving favourite foods is an expression of special attention and recognition, and the withholding of wanted foods can be a means of punishment.

Whatever the occasion or purpose for serving and eating food, special attention must be paid to its handling at all stages to attain a good sanitary quality, otherwise it could turn out to be a source of illness and dissatisfaction.

Although food is essential for life and good health, there are some foods that are not safe to eat. Food must be labelled correctly. When any label, writing or other printed or graphic matter on a food container is false or misleading this is known as misbranding. Misbranding violates food safety regulations and is unlawful. Food labelling should include the following facts about the food:. Food labelling is very important and a sensitive area for the food trade.

The quality and safety of imported, as well as exported, food depends on honest labelling. For example, if the food item has a mislabelled false expiry and production date, this can be dangerous for the consumer. In this way misbranding of canned meat products and other perishable food items can cause serious foodborne diseases.

Adulteration is when the normal content of the food has been intentionally changed by adding something to it that is not essential; for example, diluting milk with water and selling it as whole milk.

Adulterated food could be unsafe for a number of reasons. These include poor nutrition; watered-down milk is not as nutritious as whole milk. Unsafe ingredients may have been used, for example unclean water or other harmful ingredients might have been added. Contamination is the undesired presence of harmful microorganisms or substances in food.

Food can be contaminated by unhygienic practices in storage, handling and preparation, and may compromise food safety and palatability. Food contamination is discussed in more detail in Study Session 8.

The term potentially hazardous food is sometimes used to describe perishable foods because they are capable of supporting the rapid growth of microorganisms. If microorganisms are allowed to multiply, this will have the potential to cause disease if the food is eaten. If we eat safe food our health will be protected, we are less likely to get sick and we are more likely to stay healthy and productive.

You need to be able to advise people in your community about the correct methods of food handling and preparation to ensure that food is safe to eat. The key principles for safe food preparation are outlined below. Food control is the regulation of the food supply industry and enforcement of food laws by national or local authorities. Its purpose is to provide consumer protection and ensure that all foods during production, handling, storage, processing and distribution are safe, wholesome and fit for human consumption.

A food control system ensures that foods conform to safety and quality requirements and are honestly and accurately labelled, as required by law.

Food control covers all stages of production, processing and distribution of food. It covers controls on food that is produced or imported for consumption within the region and food that is exported outside the country. The principal objective of the national food control system is the protection of public health by protecting consumers from unsafe, unwholesome, mislabelled or adulterated food.

It also contributes to economic development by maintaining consumer confidence and providing sound regulatory controls for domestic and international trade in food. There are several important principles for any food control system.

We will consider four key aspects: the integrated farm-to-table concept, preventive approaches, risk analysis and transparency. The integrated farm-to-table concept refers to safety and quality built into food products from production through to consumption.

Food control systems should address all stages of the food supply chain, including imported food. Consumers should expect protection from all hazards at all stages of the chain, i. This calls for a comprehensive and integrated approach in which the producer, processor, transporter, distributor, vendor, regulator and consumer all play a vital role in ensuring food safety and quality.

It is much better to prevent food hazards arising than it is to simply monitor food at the point of sale or consumption. Sampling and analysing the final product will not provide adequate protection to the consumer. The introduction of preventive measures at all stages of the food production and distribution chain, rather than only inspection and rejection at the final stage, also makes better economic sense, because unsuitable products can be identified earlier along the chain.

HACCP can be applied at all stages in the production, processing and handling of food products. It is a preventive measure designed to provide a systematic structure to the identification and control of foodborne hazards. Governments should recognise the application of a HACCP approach by the food industry as a fundamental tool for improving the safety of food. Food control requires the analysis of risks associated with unsafe food. There are three main components of risk analysis in food safety, namely risk assessment, risk management and risk communication.

At the risk assessment stage, food hazards and risks are identified and described. Risk management means weighing up the alternatives and selecting appropriate options for prevention and control of food hazards. Risk communication is the stage in which information about the risks and hazards is shared among all people involved.

Consumers need to have confidence in the safety and quality of their food and this depends, in part, on their perception of the integrity and effectiveness of food control activities. All decision making processes within the food control system should be transparent. This means that all stakeholders that is all people who have an interest in food and food control should be able to find out how and why decisions were taken.

They should also be able to make effective contributions to the process themselves. Decisions must be explained, i. In this way, consumer confidence can be kept high.

They must also include clear definitions to increase consistency and legal security. There needs to be monitoring of compliance with food laws. Quantitative monitoring includes counting the number of food premises inspected, the number of food samples taken, the number of food complaints dealt with and the number of food poisoning cases dealt with.

Government regulators are responsible for auditing the performance of the food system through monitoring, surveillance and enforcing legal and regulatory requirements.

The more economic and effective strategy is to entrust food producers and operators with primary responsibility for food safety and quality. An important aspect of education is to promote voluntary compliance with food regulations.

Personal Hygiene and Sanitary Food Handling

Principles of Food Sanitation pp Cite as. Food handlers are potential sources of microorganisms that cause illness and food spoilage. Hygiene is a word used to describe sanitary principles for the preservation of health. Parts of the body that contribute to the contamination of food include the skin, hands, hair, eyes, mouth, nose, nasopharynx, respiratory tract, and excretory organs. These parts are contamination sources as carriers, through direct or indirect transmission, of detrimental microorganisms. Management must select clean and healthy employees and ensure that they conduct hygienic practices. Employees must be held responsible for personal hygiene so that the food that they handle remains wholesome.

This book was produced using, and PDF rendering was done by PrinceXML. Page 5. Contents. Accessibility Statement vi. About.

Personal Hygiene and Sanitary Food Handling

Easy-to-read, question-and-answer fact sheets covering a wide range of workplace health and safety topics, from hazards to diseases to ergonomics to workplace promotion. Download the free OSH Answers app. Search all fact sheets:. Use good cleaning and storage techniques to reduce the chance of food borne illnesses. The highest levels of contamination are found in areas that are damp, such as kitchen sponges, dishcloths, sink drains, and faucet handles.

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Lepper, K. Schneider, R. Goodrich-Schneider, and A.

When certain disease-causing bacteria, viruses or parasite contaminate food, they can cause food-related diseases. Since food-related diseases can be serious, or even fatal, it is important to know and practice safe food-handling behaviors to help reduce the risk of getting sick from contaminated food. Foodborne diseases are widespread throughout the world. The process by which a foodborne disease spreads begins with the features of the disease, contaminating the food, which in turn threatens both individual and public health by means of the foods. Healthy, or what can be termed as safe food, is food that has not lost its nutritional value, that is clean, in physical, chemical and microbiological terms and that is not stale.

With this in mind, ensuring that food is safe for human consumption is likely the most critical part of the food preparation process. This ranges from what is called farm to fork, meaning from the farms all the way to your plate. Check out our article on the food production chain and the possible ways contamination can happen.

У Бринкерхоффа был такой вид, словно он вот-вот лишится чувств. - Десять секунд. Глаза Сьюзан неотрывно смотрели на Танкадо.

Или надумает продать кольцо. Беккер не мог ждать. Он решительно поднял трубку, снова набрал номер и прислонился к стене. Послышались гудки.

Ее плечи подрагивали. Она закрыла лицо руками. Дэвид не мог прийти в .

Парень был озадачен. - Для имени нужна торговая марка, а не патент. - А мне без разницы.  - Панк не понимал, к чему клонит Беккер.


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