Leo Spitzer Linguistics And Literary History Pdf
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- 146545103 Linguistics and Literary History Leo Spitzer
- Leo Spitzer
- Linguistics and Literary History: Essays in Stylistics
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146545103 Linguistics and Literary History Leo Spitzer
Jolles and Huizing First, it presents the background of their effort, the world of learning they shared with philologists such as Ernst Robert Curtius, Leo Spitzer and Erich Auerbach. It explains, in particular, the idea of cultural harmony and of methodological notions like that of the possibility to extrapolate from small facts to large issues, and of cultural criticism as a counteroffensive against the loss of harmony. Next, the essay focuses on the common creativity of Jolles and Huizinga and their views on metamorphosis as the inner mechanism of cultural change.
Forms, that existed in a limited number, in typological series of social identities or cultural genres, were their main tool in cultural analysis and criticism. But as a reader he remained, especially in view of the current myopic perspective of specialized historians, a wanderer. Both men were conservative by nature. It is then possible to write a book about Huizinga and Jolles mainly as readers, as people who find themselves while losing themselves, people who both choose and are chosen.
As a reader, Huizinga was a member of a strange and relatively small philological circle, the relic of what had once been the Respublica Literaria , that of comparative literature, readers of the most important languages of Ancient Europe, and in this way the re-creators of the even more ancient unity of the Latinitas from which colloquial Latin originated.
Readers who were forced to acknowledge that what had once split into different languages was now disintegrating further as a result of illiteracy. It blossomed in the beginning of the Twentieth century with scholars such as Vossler, Curtius, Spitzer and Auerbach. Their common assumption was that culture was defined by harmony, by the unity and inseparability of the hearts and minds of its participants. This unity gave a culture its metaphysical aura, it was a musical harmony of the individual soul with the cosmos.
They believed that this harmony once existed, and that it, quite recently, had been radically disturbed. They were all passionate about language, and all of them had an exceptional linguistic sensibility and command.
They were called philologists, but deplored the division between linguistics and literary theory, between philology and history, between history and the humanities, a division that had quickly unfolded in their lifetime. This process of specialization formed part of a much more general process of the dismantling of culture, and it drove each of them to combine in their work cultural—historical distance with cultural—critical involvement.
Where everything was linked, a secret affinity arose, and those who could sense it were able to find it again in every given thing, down to the smallest detail. The insight into this connectedness often came in the form of an epiphany, a shock, or a flash. In the scar of Odysseus and the sacrifice of Isaac, Auerbach is able to point to two basic stylistic types that were given to European literature by Homer and the Elohist. Complete description contrasts with selection, clarity with suggestion, surface with depth, simplicity with complexity.
Figura is the concept in which everything on earth finds its completion and fulfilment in the hereafter. This form of philology, which looks exactly like the typological interpretation of the Old Testament — every person and every story finds its fulfilment in the New Testament —immediately makes it clear how easy it was to translate Pythagorean mysticism into Christian ideas, and it explains the magnificent continuity of thought. Deeply convinced as they were that philology was not an antiquarian discipline but rather the study of the past at the service of the present, they noticed a dramatic rupture in style, which through fragmentation and flattening, specialization and standardization, separated the modernity of the Nineteenth century from the two thousand years of unity that had preceded it as by a watershed.
In their common aversion to progress and Positivism, these Cassandra types saw it as their task to once again turn their eyes to the magnificent unity of European culture which was collapsing under their feet. Auerbach wrote it, dismissed from Marburg and driven out of Germany, in Istanbul. Another victim of the diaspora, he wrote his book on World Harmony at Yale. He pleaded for a new periodization of Western history. For him, the breech did not come with the Renaissance.
At the end of the Eighteenth century, Harmony had become frozen and robbed of its flowers. Life existed in infinite variations, forms were limited in number, while the essence of man remained virtually constant.
In what they both described as their morphology, Huizinga as well as Jolles was trying to trace not a linear development, but a metamorphosis of forms, forms which adapted themselves to the central principle of the culture that makes use of them.
One of those series was about the creative persona. If a serious statement is defined as one that may be made in terms of waking life, poetry will never rise to the level of seriousness.
It lies beyond seriousness, on that more primitive and original level where the child, the animal, the savage and the seer belong, in the region of dream, enchantment, ecstasy, laughter.
The child is one with his play, just as the primitive man, in his magic dance, becomes the kangaroo. The one has become the other. The connections are made explicit in Homo ludens :. The Latin countries of the West added to this cult the ideal of the gallant, so that chivalry and courteous love are so interwoven that we can hardly tell which is warp and which woof.
The power of the ideal lay in its exaggeration, which at the same time sapped its vigour. The new era jettisoned the overly high-pitched aspirations. The knight is transformed into the French gentilhomme of the seventeenth century, who, though still maintaining a number of concepts of state and honor, no longer claims to be a warrior for matters of faith or a defender of the weak and oppressed.
During the successive transformations of the ideal the outermost shells, each having become a lie, are peeled away time and again. They could spill over into one another and they were both literature—genres such as the heroic, the bucolic and the picaresque—and realities—our confrontation with culture. They incorporate the three varieties of change— Verwandlung in German—that are open to us: transitive, intransitive and reflexive, that is active to change, to take on another identity , passive to be changed, to be invaded by another identity and a third possibility in between Jolles uses here the German Verkleidung , a less radical change in which we keep our identity more or less intact.
All of them are travesties, movements either upward the knight , downward the knave , or outward the bucolic, the shepherd. Whether literary genres or social attitudes, the three travesties are a form of play. The travesty of the shepherd is a play with nature, the travesty of the knight is a play with the heroic, the travesty of the knave is a play with crime.
And there is a fundamental one here at work. All culture was preceded by play, born as play and in play. The three forms he described were forms of escape from culture, the only three available to mankind. According to Jolles, man has the possibility to order the dazzling variety of life according to certain literary principles. And there are again two possibilities: either literature moulds life or life models literature. It is here that the parallel lives of Huizinga and Jolles part.
Here, essentially, their two roads diverged. Jolles in the end took the first option, Huizinga the second one. Huizinga chose life, Jolles literature. Jolles took the road less travelled by, and that made all the difference. See W. His membership number was See A. Gumbrecht, Vom Leben und Sterben der grossen Romanisten.
Magris, Microcosmi , Milano, Garzanti, English translation: Microcosms , London, Harvill, Translated by I. Lezen en werk van J. Kamerbeek Jr. Spitzer, Linguistics and Literary History. Auerbach, Die Narbe des Odysseus , in Mimesis.
Kowal, Introduction , in E. Spitzer, Linguistics and Literary History , op. Auerbach, Mimesis , op. Ziolkowski, Foreword , in E. Translated by J. See also E. Auerbach, Figura , Paris, Macula, Translated by D. Meur, with an excellent postface by M. Said, in E. Kowal, Introduction , op. Otterspeer, Reading Huizinga , op. Huizinga, Herfsttij der Middeleeuwen. Translated by R.
Payton and U. Het is de wijze, waarop de primitieve mensch, het kind, de dichter de wereld begrijpt. Huizinga, Homo ludens. Zij staat aan gene zijde van den ernst, aan de oorspronkelijke zijde, waar het kind, het dier, de wilde en de ziener thuishooren, in het veld van den droom, de vervoering en den lach.
Huizinga, Homo Ludens. De een is het ander geworden. De wilde, in zijn tooverdans, is kangaroe. Huizinga, Homo ludens , op. English translation, op. Het Latijnsche Westen heeft in dien cultus van het edele krijgersleven ook het ideaal van hoofsche minne opgenomen, het is er zoo innig door heen geweven, dat op den duur de inslag de schering verborg.
Voor het Fransche edelmanstype treedt dat van den gentleman in de plaats, regelrecht ontwikkeld uit den ouden ridder, maar getemperd en verfijnd. Bij de opeenvolgende transformaties van het ideaal liet telkens een buitenste schaal, die leugen geworden was, los.
Huizinga, Herfsttij der Middeleeuwen , op. Wege der Forschung , vol. Jolles, Einfache Formen. Contents - Next document.
By Leo Spitzer. Spitzer discusses the method he evolved for bringing together the two disciplines, linguistics and literary history, and examines the work of Cervantes, Racine, Diderot, and Claudel in the light of this theory. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in
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Linguistics and Literary History: Essays in Stylistics
Metapragmatics in relation to conduct and etiquette manuals. The Princeton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. Said, Humanism and Democratic Criticism Basingstoke,.
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Jolles and Huizing First, it presents the background of their effort, the world of learning they shared with philologists such as Ernst Robert Curtius, Leo Spitzer and Erich Auerbach.