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Museum Exhibition Planning and Design
Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. The practice, which began in the prehistoric era , has been used as a way of expressing culture for civilizations on all seven continents. Texts on architecture have been written since ancient time.
The earliest surviving text on architectural theory is the 1st century AD treatise De architectura by the Roman architect Vitruvius , according to whom a good building embodies firmitas, utilitas , and venustas durability, utility, and beauty. Centuries later, Leon Battista Alberti developed his ideas further, seeing beauty as an objective quality of buildings to be found in their proportions.
Giorgio Vasari wrote Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects and put forward the idea of style in the arts in the 16th century. In the 19th century, Louis Sullivan declared that " form follows function ". The idea of sustainable architecture was introduced in the late 20th century.
Architecture began as rural, oral vernacular architecture that developed from trial and error to successful replication. Ancient urban architecture was preoccupied with building religious structures and buildings symbolizing the political power of rulers until Greek and Roman architecture shifted focus to civic virtues.
Indian and Chinese architecture influenced forms all over Asia and Buddhist architecture in particular took diverse local flavors.
During the European Middle Ages , pan-European styles of Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals and abbeys emerged while the Renaissance favored Classical forms implemented by architects known by name. Later, the roles of architects and engineers became separated. Modern architecture began after World War I as an avant-garde movement that sought to develop a completely new style appropriate for a new post-war social and economic order focused on meeting the needs of the middle and working classes.
Emphasis was put on modern techniques, materials, and simplified geometric forms, paving the way for high-rise superstructures. Many architects became disillusioned with modernism which they perceived as ahistorical and anti-aesthetic, and postmodern and contemporary architecture developed. Over the years, the field of architectural construction has branched out to include everything from ship design to interior decorating.
The philosophy of architecture is a branch of philosophy of art , dealing with aesthetic value of architecture, its semantics and relations with development of culture. Many philosophers and theoreticians from Plato to Michel Foucault , Gilles Deleuze ,  Robert Venturi and Ludwig Wittgenstein have concerned themselves with the nature of architecture and whether or not architecture is distinguished from building.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. An equivalent in modern English would be:. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti , who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De re aedificatoria , saw beauty primarily as a matter of proportion, although ornament also played a part.
For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean. The most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, and was based on universal, recognisable truths. The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Giorgio Vasari. This treatise exerted immense influence throughout Europe, being the first handbook that emphasized the practical rather than the theoretical aspects of architecture, and it was the first to catalog the five orders.
In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world.
Gothic architecture , Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men His work goes on to state that a building is not truly a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned". For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication , at the very least.
On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction , the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone, wood, and concrete, and with these materials you build houses and palaces: that is construction. Ingenuity is at work. But suddenly you touch my heart, you do me good.
I am happy and I say: This is beautiful. That is Architecture". There it begins. The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan , promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: " Form follows function ". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be entirely subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius ' "utility".
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values , architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development To restrict the meaning of architectural formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary; it can also be a purposeless quest for perfection or originality which degrades form into a mere instrumentality".
Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are Rationalism , Empiricism , Structuralism , Poststructuralism , Deconstruction and Phenomenology.
In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability , hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner which is environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling, water and waste management, and lighting.
Building first evolved out of the dynamics between needs shelter, security, worship, etc. As human cultures developed and knowledge began to be formalized through oral traditions and practices, building became a craft , and "architecture" is the name given to the most highly formalized and respected versions of that craft.
It is widely assumed that architectural success was the product of a process of trial and error, with progressively less trial and more replication as the results of the process proved increasingly satisfactory.
What is termed vernacular architecture continues to be produced in many parts of the world. Vernacular architecture in Norway : wood and elevated-level. Early human settlements were mostly rural. In many ancient civilizations such as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia , architecture and urbanism reflected the constant engagement with the divine and the supernatural , and many ancient cultures resorted to monumentality in architecture to represent symbolically the political power of the ruler, the ruling elite, or the state itself.
The architecture and urbanism of the Classical civilizations such as the Greek and the Roman evolved from civic ideals rather than religious or empirical ones and new building types emerged. Architectural "style" developed in the form of the Classical orders. Roman architecture was influenced by Greek architecture as they incorporated many Greek elements into their building practices. These texts provided both general advice and specific formal prescriptions or canons.
Some of the most important early examples of canonic architecture are religious. The Pyramids at Giza in Egypt. Mohenjo-daro , Pakistan. The Parthenon in Athens , Greece. Roman aqueduct in Segovia , Spain. The architecture of different parts of Asia developed along different lines from that of Europe; Buddhist, Hindu and Sikh architecture each having different characteristics. Indian and Chinese architecture have had great influence on the surrounding regions, while Japanese architecture has not.
Buddhist architecture , in particular, showed great regional diversity. Hindu temple architecture , which developed from around the 5th century CE, is in theory governed by concepts laid down in the Shastras , and is concerned with expressing the macrocosm and the microcosm. In many Asian countries, pantheistic religion led to architectural forms that were designed specifically to enhance the natural landscape. In many parts of Asia, even the grandest houses were relatively lightweight structures mainly using wood until recent times, and there are few survivals of great age.
Buddhism was associated with a move to stone and brick religious structures, probably beginning as rock-cut architecture , which has often survived very well. Gyeongbokgung Palace in Seoul , South Korea. Kinkaku-ji Golden Pavilion , Kyoto , Japan.
Islamic architecture began in the 7th century CE , incorporating architectural forms from the ancient Middle East and Byzantium , but also developing features to suit the religious and social needs of the society. Dome of the Rock , Jerusalem. Taj Mahal in Agra , India. Alhambra , Granada , Spain. Shah Mosque in Isfahan , Iran. Stari Most , 16th-c.
In Europe during the Medieval period, guilds were formed by craftsmen to organize their trades and written contracts have survived, particularly in relation to ecclesiastical buildings.
The role of architect was usually one with that of master mason, or Magister lathomorum as they are sometimes described in contemporary documents. The major architectural undertakings were the buildings of abbeys and cathedrals. From about CE onward, the movements of both clerics and tradesmen carried architectural knowledge across Europe, resulting in the pan-European styles Romanesque and Gothic. Also, a significant part of the Middle Ages architectural heritage is numerous fortifications across the continent.
From Balkans to Spain, and from Malta to Estonia, these buildings represent an important part of European heritage. Notre Dame de Paris , France. The Tower of London , England.
Doge's Palace , Venice , Italy. In Renaissance Europe, from about onwards, there was a revival of Classical learning accompanied by the development of Renaissance humanism , which placed greater emphasis on the role of the individual in society than had been the case during the Medieval period. Buildings were ascribed to specific architects — Brunelleschi , Alberti , Michelangelo , Palladio — and the cult of the individual had begun.
There was still no dividing line between artist , architect and engineer , or any of the related vocations, and the appellation was often one of regional preference. A revival of the Classical style in architecture was accompanied by a burgeoning of science and engineering, which affected the proportions and structure of buildings. At this stage, it was still possible for an artist to design a bridge as the level of structural calculations involved was within the scope of the generalist. Peter's Basilica , Rome , Italy.
Santa Maria Novella , Florence , Italy. With the emerging knowledge in scientific fields and the rise of new materials and technology, architecture and engineering began to separate, and the architect began to concentrate on aesthetics and the humanist aspects, often at the expense of technical aspects of building design. There was also the rise of the "gentleman architect" who usually dealt with wealthy clients and concentrated predominantly on visual qualities derived usually from historical prototypes, typified by the many country houses of Great Britain that were created in the Neo Gothic or Scottish baronial styles.
Meanwhile, the Industrial Revolution laid open the door for mass production and consumption. Aesthetics became a criterion for the middle class as ornamented products, once within the province of expensive craftsmanship, became cheaper under machine production.
Vernacular architecture became increasingly ornamental. Housebuilders could use current architectural design in their work by combining features found in pattern books and architectural journals.
How to Plan and Design an Exhibition
Exhibition planning is an engaging process. Exhibitions are experiences; they provide communication of ideas, information, feelings and values. Although there is no set method for planning an exhibit, there are general guidelines that professionals follow. Whether you are planning a small or large scale exhibit for a community organization, museum, archive or library, designing a virtual exhibit, or generally want to learn the exhibition planning process, this article will take you the exhibition development guidelines to help you transition your concepts to realities. People visit exhibitions for several reasons: for information, for personal identity and reinforcement of personal values, for social interaction, and for entertainment and relaxation.
Museum architecture sometimes involves the conversion of old buildings that have outlived their usefulness but that are still of historic interest. Visit motivations l Visit goals l Life goals. Stories about museum architecture and design from around the world, including new museum buildings, refurbishments and interiors by leading architects. For the Design Museum, design is a continually evolving subject which it explores through its exhibitions programme, permanent collection, learning and research activities. There are many ways that interactive exhibits can fall short of creating a powerful, successful visitor experience. Historic District.
Robillard, David A., "Public Space Design in Museums" (). Center for Architecture and Urban Planning Research Books. elesconditesirio.orgcaupr_mono/.
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Museum Exhibition Planning and Design. Great exhibits are never an accident. Planning effective exhibits is a demanding process that requires the designer to consider many different aspects and navigate numerous pitfalls while moving a project from concept to reality. In Museum Exhibition Planning and Design , Elizabeth Bogle offers a comprehensive introduction and reference to exhibition planning and design.
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Museum Exhibition Design Definition
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Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. The practice, which began in the prehistoric era , has been used as a way of expressing culture for civilizations on all seven continents. Texts on architecture have been written since ancient time. The earliest surviving text on architectural theory is the 1st century AD treatise De architectura by the Roman architect Vitruvius , according to whom a good building embodies firmitas, utilitas , and venustas durability, utility, and beauty. Centuries later, Leon Battista Alberti developed his ideas further, seeing beauty as an objective quality of buildings to be found in their proportions. Giorgio Vasari wrote Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects and put forward the idea of style in the arts in the 16th century. In the 19th century, Louis Sullivan declared that " form follows function ".
Produced by the Powerhouse Museum, Sydney, with assistance from the New South Wales General planning and drafting of the budget and schedule.
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Он что-то скрывает. Джабба вытаращил глаза: - Мидж, дорогая. Я по уши опутан кабелем. Если ты хочешь назначить мне свидание, я освобожусь. Если же нет, то позвони электрикам.
Самая грязная ванна, какую мне доводилось видеть. И самый мерзкий пляж, покрытый острыми камнями. Этого и ждут от меня читатели.
Он присел на край койки. - Теперь, мистер Клушар, позвольте спросить, почему такой человек, как вы, оказался в таком месте.
Несколько месяцев она добивалась, чтобы он объяснил, что это значит, но Дэвид молчал. Моя любовь без воска. Это было его местью.
Дэвид Беккер смотрел на экран прямо перед. У него кружилась голова, и он едва отдавал себе отчет в происходящем. На экране он видел комнату, в которой царил хаос. В этой комнате находилась Сьюзан. Она стояла отдельно от остальных и смотрела на него, смеясь и плача.
Вопреки широко распространенному мнению о том, что такой компьютер создать невозможно, АНБ осталось верным своему девизу: возможно все; на невозможное просто требуется больше времени. Через пять лет, истратив полмиллиона рабочих часов и почти два миллиарда долларов, АН Б вновь доказало жизненность своего девиза. Последний из трех миллионов процессоров размером с почтовую марку занял свое место, все программное обеспечение было установлено, и керамическая оболочка наглухо заделана. ТРАНСТЕКСТ появился на свет. Хотя создававшийся в обстановке повышенной секретности ТРАНСТЕКСТ стал плодом усилий многих умов и принцип его работы не был доступен ни одному человеку в отдельности, он, в сущности, был довольно прост: множество рук делают груз легким.
Компьютер однократно пискнул. На экране высветилось: СЛЕДОПЫТ ОТПРАВЛЕН Теперь надо ждать. Сьюзан вздохнула.