Design Of Enterprise Systems Theory Architecture And Methods Pdf
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Enterprise systems engineering ESE is the discipline that applies systems engineering to the design of an enterprise. An enterprise is a complex, socio-technical system that comprises interdependent resources of people, information, and technology that must interact to fulfill a common mission. It accomplishes all of the tasks of "traditional" systems engineering, further informed by an expansive view of the context POET political, operational, economic, technological in which the system s under consideration are being developed, acquired, modified, maintained, or disposed of.
[PDF Download] Design of Enterprise Systems: Theory Architecture and Methods [PDF] Online
Abstract A desired to-be enterprise architecture is realized through many individual projects that incrementally bring the enterprise toward the target enterprise architecture. There are many alternatives projects and the problem is how to decide among the alternatives given budget and time constraints.
This paper presents a real options framework to plan a portfolio of projects to realize a target enterprise architecture. Using DoDAF , we describe a method for defining projects as a collection of compound real options. We present a case study of a small defense contractor to illustrate our approach. The model and method contributes a means to value a portfolio of projects to realize an enterprise architecture. The motivation for this research is the development of systems engineering tools to help the Department of Defense realize their net-centric transformation to have a more effective and efficient war-fighting capabilities.
Louis, MO Cihan H. A desired to-be enterprise architecture is realized through many individual projects that incrementally bring the enterprise toward the target enterprise architecture. Using DoDAF, we describe a method for defining projects as a collection of compound real options. The value of an enterprise is significantly influenced by its architecture. Enterprise architecture defines the structure of the enterprise in terms of its structure and form .
The architecture dictates to a large extent the capabilities of the enterprise and its behavior. Designing an enterprise, or enterprise engineering, is a systems engineer approach to determining the needed enterprise capabilities and designing the organization, processes, information, and technologies in the enterprise to provide those capabilities.
The design of enterprise architecture almost never starts with a blank sheet of paper, but. Moreover, this transformation takes place over the span of many years, and for some very large enterprises they may be constantly changing because they must survive and adapt in a constantly changing environment [1, 2]. Planning enterprise transformation is difficult in part due to the external and internal uncertainty faced by the organization as well as the changes that can be expected to the vision, goals, and enterprise situation that can be expected as the enterprise undergoes transformation.
This calls for a flexible and adaptive approach to defining the enterprise transformation plan and to executing it. Such an architectural design process can provide greater value through the potential to avoid risks and simultaneously take advantage of beneficial opportunities as they arise.
In this paper, we formulate the enterprise architecture design problem as a planning problem, where management, given limited resources, must decide upon a portfolio of projects to transform the enterprise to the target architectural state. We do the planning within the DoDAF framework [3, 4], which defines the architectural views and data definitions to describe an enterprise architecture. To define a transformation plan for the enterprise, we focus on individual projects that deliver systems, system components, and their integration in order to deliver the target capabilities.
The systems are defined by the systems view and the capabilities by the capability view. The concept of real options is taken from financial options on which they are based. Real options allow the holder of the option to exercise the option if conditions are favorable, but the holder is not obligated to exercise the option if conditions are unfavorable . Consequently, the value of options is they allow for the upside potential while limiting the downside risk.
Options only have value in the face of uncertainty and when that uncertainty is expected to be resolved before all the investment decisions must be made. This situation is what is faced by those planning enterprise transformation. The target enterprise architecture is brought into service incrementally as systems are developed, brought online, and integrated. During the enterprise transformation, the uncertainty is due to the value of each project, which depends on whether the project is successful, and if so, then by how much.
Project success is only apparent after the project starts and progresses. A real options valuation considers the fact that decisions are made sequentially and the decision maker will use all available information at the time the decision is made.
Real options are based on the valuation of the underlying asset whose value is modeled as a stochastic process. In finance, the underlying asset is a tradeable stock and the stochastic process is an extension of the historic volatility and trend of the stock using Brownian motion. In finance, the Black-Scholes equation is used to value call and put options . For real options, selection of the underlying asset is less clear, identifying the volatility is more difficult, and there are several alternative approaches to model the stochastic process.
Formulating architecture design in the context of real options allows valuation of architectural project options that allows for both risk reduction and the possibility of exploiting upside potential if it should arise.
Real options can be either on the projects to realize a system or built into the architecture or design of a system . Real options on projects have been used in infrastructure projects and in projects that naturally include phased decision making. Herath and Park  present a compound real options framework to value sequential options for infrastructure projects.
Wu et al. Several authors have investigated real options in system architectures. Examples of this work include [9, 10]. Our work is part of the stream of research of real options on projects. What distinguishes our work is that we model a portfolio of real options which captures the interdependency that naturally exists between enterprise architecture options.
We do this by building on the switching model of Brosch . Our main point of departure is that we use Monte Carlo simulation because the stochastic dynamic programming approach of Brosch is not tractable except for small problems . Figure 1 illustrates the problem we are addressing. Given a set of projects, what portfolio of projects should be selected to transform the enterprise from the as-is to the to-be enterprise architecture?
The first step is to map the desired capabilities into one or more projects that can provide that capability. Here a project will deliver one or more capabilities through either a materiel solution or by changing the existing system in some fashion.
In our real options framework, the projects are the underlying assets whose cash flow is modeled as a stochastic variable with a known volatility.
A project cash flow is the benefits and capabilities provided measured in dollar terms minus the costs of the project. The expected value of the cash flow is estimated for year 1 via traditional cost and benefit analysis. The volatility of the cash flow is measured as the standard deviation per time period for the project. In practice, the volatility would likely be estimated by subject matter experts based on prior projects of similar type, size, and scope.
The projects being executed as part of the enterprise transformation will likely be interdependent on each other. Project interdependencies arise due to the use of common resources, benefits derived from the projects, or technical considerations . The interdependencies can result in either mutually exclusive projects, contingent projects, or a correlation between project success or failure. In the mathematical model we represent mutually exclusive project with constraints, contingent projects as compound real options, and we model all other interdependencies as a correlation between the cash flows of project x and projecty.
The correlation may be positive or negative and ranges between -1 and 1. The real option switching model is a stochastic mathematical model that finds the optimal sequence of project investment decisions to maximize the total net present value of the project portfolio over the planning horizon. In the model, real options on projects are represented as different project states that can. Let a1 denote the option to operate the project in state i. The definitions of state i can be done so as to represent various options on a project including compound options to postpone, expand, or abandon.
We let a1 denote the default operation mode of postponing investment. Initially, every project is in mode a1. The other states can be defined to represent different options. For example, we could define a2 to denote the operation mode of a pilot project and a3 to denote investment in a full scale deployment. The decision is the investment to make in each project in each time period. Let xptsaa' denote the binary decision variable of whether to switch from project state a to state a' for project p in time period t and scenario s, where the scenario indicates when the stochastic variable has moved up or down.
In our model, cash flow is path dependent because budget availability depends on the scenario history and also the availability of compound options depends on previous investments.
Further details of the mathematical model are left out for purposes of brevity. The model is a stochastic dynamic program, which is known to suffer from state-space explosion that makes this class of problems intractable for any but trivial problems . To overcome the computational complexity, we use Monte Carlo simulation to sample paths for each cash flow.
The random variables for the uncertain cash flows are generated according to the correlation matrix using the method of Iman and Conover  which generates a set of correlated random numbers. For each cash flow generated by the Monte Carlo simulation, we use a mathematical model to do the dynamic programming to generate the optimal project plan. Then we analyze the results for many simulation runs to devise the preferred decision strategy.
Solution of the model determines which projects, options, and time period to invest in each project. We present a case study to illustrate the enterprise transformation framework. ABC company is a small and medium-sized defense contractor located in Florida. It is a low-volume and high-mix manufacturer, performing the design, development, and system integration for electro-mechanical systems. They envision an enterprise that has a more visible role in the early phases of defense system development and consequently a larger part of the value chain.
Management has identified a strategy for achieving this growth and are concerned about obstacles that may prevent the fundamental changes to transform the company. The strategy includes achieving greater efficiency of operations, better integration of internal systems so they can have better coordination of activities, and better integration with customers in order to work in a more open, collaborative environment.
The projects identified involves IT infrastructure investment, enterprise systems investment, reorganization investment, and training investment. Table 1 shows the main input data to the model for the projects. The planning horizon is five years and for each year a limited budget is available for investing in projects.
Not shown is the correlation matrix for the five projects that was used to generate the random variables for project value. The starting value of each project is given in Table 1 as initial value.
Correlated random numbers were generated to simulation possible cash flows for each of the projects. A transformation plan is developed by running the simulations, using decision heuristics to select a portfolio for year 1, repeating Monte Carlo for the remaining years, and continuing the process until a portfolio of projects is derived for the entire planning horizon.
Figure 2a shows the final system state at the end of the transformation planning horizon. In all scenarios, Project 1 is in state 3. Other than this project, the final state of the other projects depends on the history of the stochastic variable.
In other words, the optimal decision depends on how the future uncertainty unfolds, which is the main point of the real options framework that decisions depend on how the uncertainty is resolved. Figure 2b shows the distribution of value at the end of the transformation planning horizon, assuming optimal decisions are made.
The model can help decision makers by highlighting a strategy to fund projects on a year-by-year basis. The paper contributed a real options framework to plan a portfolio of projects to realize the target enterprise architecture.
Design Of Enterprise Systems Pdf
Design Fundamentals In Architecture Pdf layers of security architecture do not have standard names that are universal across all architectures. Hall is the author of Microprocessors and Interfacing 4. Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Design. Call 1 - Realize the importance of EA fundamentals. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Balance is the distribution of the visual weight of objects, colors, texture, and space.
Enterprise systems design esd is a structured course for junior or senior undergraduates that fulfills one of the requirements of the minor or concentration in engineering management. The author uses the enterprise system design methodology to organize the chapters to mimic the completion of an actual project. Design of enterprise systems pdf. The author provides various examples which give you a solid base to understand the concepts thoroughly. Engm enterprise systems design. Theory architecture and methods pdf epub docx and torrent then this site is not for you. The design method demonstrates the principles models methods and tools needed to design enterprise systems.
Enterprise architecture EA is the organizing logic for a firm's core business processes and IT capabilities captured in a set of policies and technical choices. Handbook of Enterprise Systems Architecture in Practice provides a comprehensive and unified reference overview of practical aspects of enterprise architecture. This Premier Reference Source includes a complete analysis of EA theory, concepts, strategies, implementation challenges, and case studies. The impact of effective enterprise architecture on IT governance, IT portfolio management, IT risks, and IT outsourcing are described in this authoritative reference tool. Researchers and IT professionals will gain insights into how firms can maximize the business value of IT and increase competitiveness.
Design Fundamentals In Architecture Pdf
Giachetti In practice, many different people with backgrounds in many different disciplines contribute to the design of an enterprise. Anyone who makes decisions to change the current enterprise to achieve some preferred structure is considered a designer. What is problematic is how to use the knowledge of separate aspects of the enterprise to achieve a globally optimized enterprise. The synthesis of knowledge from many disciplines to design an enterprise defines the field of enterprise engineering.
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Transitioning Systems Engineering to a Model-based. Requirement Engineering The process to gather the software requirements from client, analyze and document them is known as requirement engineering. This module will cover the non-drawing portions of a print. This ensures an adequate fluid supply to the secondary system if the main system fails.
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