Composting And Biogas Production Pdf
File Name: composting and biogas production .zip
This study aimed to design a biogas digester that works thermophilically and mesophilically and tested its performance to produce biogas and digestate. This study used some experimental methods, which consists of: 1 design and construction process of the digester which can facilitate the thermophilic process as a pretreatment of the feedstock and the anaerobic digestion process of the substrate; 2 determination of the quantity of biogas, liquid digestate, and compost; and 3 testing digestate quality as a liquid organic fertilizer for Ipomoea reptans. The built biogas digester was able to accommodate thermophilic digestion that runs intensely in the pretreatment tank, where the complex organic compounds, namely cellulose and hemicellulose, decomposed intensively, so that it becomes a suitable substrate.
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Design of biogas digester with thermophilic pretreatment for reducing fruits wastes
This study aimed to design a biogas digester that works thermophilically and mesophilically and tested its performance to produce biogas and digestate. This study used some experimental methods, which consists of: 1 design and construction process of the digester which can facilitate the thermophilic process as a pretreatment of the feedstock and the anaerobic digestion process of the substrate; 2 determination of the quantity of biogas, liquid digestate, and compost; and 3 testing digestate quality as a liquid organic fertilizer for Ipomoea reptans.
The built biogas digester was able to accommodate thermophilic digestion that runs intensely in the pretreatment tank, where the complex organic compounds, namely cellulose and hemicellulose, decomposed intensively, so that it becomes a suitable substrate. The highest Ipomoea reptans growth was achieved by digestate treatment from banana waste. Digestate treatment as a liquid organic fertilizer is able to provide a better supply of nutrients for plants.
This method often leads to accumulation problems if the number of employee and fleets was inadequate, so this method has to be improved and even replaced Indonesian Government Regulation Number 81 of Biogas technology is a waste processing technology that has several advantages, such as it can be applied in each location and without forming a by-product. This technology can prevent environmental problems that commonly occur in open dumping and centralized processing. A broad landfill area can be used for more productive activities.
This process will lead to sustainable and balanced production of organic fertilizer for soil applications, which will increase yields and improve soil health and environmental quality.
The method can be a model of waste processing that can be replicated, especially for developing countries Sudharmaidevi et al. Organic waste is a valuable resource for fertilizer, compost, and fuel. Organic waste is a valuable source of fertilizer, compost and fuel. This biogas production with anaerobic digestion also leaves organic residues in the form of digestate and compost that are rich in nutrients.
The use of biogas fuel compared to fossil fuels will reduce the carbon footprint. If these digestates are applied in crop production, the available nutrients which already exist in the nutrient cycle will be recycled and the sustainability of the biogas production process will increase.
The food waste is assumed to be shredded, sieved and then sent to a digestion tank. The output of this biological process is two valuable products: biogas which may be used for either heat or power generation; and digestate that may be utilized as a soil fertiliser Salemdeeb et al. The waste management in Indonesia has been changed by reducing the source and recycling approach of materials, namely 3R reuse, recycle, reduction.
Therefore, all citizens are expected to change the way they view and treat waste as an alternative resource, which can be used optimally or over-used and recycled Indonesian National Legislation Number 18 of Furthermore, Indonesian Government Regulation Number 81 of provides that waste management consists of five stages: segregation, collection, transportation, processing and final processing of waste by all citizens.
The rules are applied gradually, planned, and based on clear policies and strategies. Temperature is one of the most important factors in the succession of composting micro-organisms, and it is relatively easy to ascertain the microbial succession from mesophiles to thermophiles, or conversely from thermophiles to mesophiles, using different incubation temperatures with, for example, the dilution plating method Nakasaki et al. The advantage of using the thermophilic enzymes for conducting biotechnological processes at elevated temperatures are: reducing the risk of contamination by mesophilic microorganisms; decreasing the viscosity of the reaction medium; increasing the bioavailability and solubility of organic compounds; increasing the diffusion coefficient of substrates and products resulting in higher reaction rates Gomes et al.
The understanding of the design process is important both to manage the design activity and to aid the improvement of products and the overall efficiency of engineering-based companies; it is also the foundation on which a lot of design research is based.
The designers generally worked in sequence according to these stages, but it was not impossible that they returned to a previous step if there were mistakes Rahmat et al.
The stages of the study are shown in Fig. The digester testing consisted of two experimental stages, namely: 1 determining the digester capacity that included production of biogas, digestate, and compost; and 2 determining the digestate quality as an organic fertilizer.
Preparation of fruit waste. The waste is mixed homogeneously and then crushed with an electric blender. The crushed wastes were converted into slurry by mixing hot water in weight ratio of Furthermore, the mixture was made as the object of thermophilic pretreatment.
Preparation of thermophilic bacteria. Consortium of thermophilic bacteria was obtained from organic matter that decomposed in hot springs at Galunggung Volcano in Tasikmalaya District. The aim of the experiment was to test the effect of four waste treatments biogas production and digestate performance. The experimental design was used in a randomized block design and five treatments were carried out.
Preparation of Ipomoea reptans nursery. The experiment had 5 treatments and 5 repetitions, so it took 25 planting units. Arrangement of treatment. The experiment aimed to test the effectiveness of four digestate as liquid organic fertilizer on the Ipomoea reptans growth. Variables of response as growth parameters were measured on indicator of 1 length of shoot; and 2 weight of plant biomass. Measurement was taken on a day-old plant.
The thermophile biogas digester consists of seven functional components, namely: 1 digester tank; 2 water batch; 3 thermostat; 4 water heater; 5 biogas pipeline; 6 biogas container tank; and 7 digestate and compost container tank.
Those things explained that variations in design, dimensions, and operational parameters of a digester will effect on its performance. The effect of stirring, operation temperature, organic loading rate and reactor design on the methane production rate and methane yield was studied.
Two-stage design which separated the soluble components from the solids and treated them separately had more rapid kinetics than one-stage system, producing the target methane potential in one-half the retention time than the one-stage system. The organic waste from kitchen was used to make up substrate, which was anaerobically digested in an experimental continues stirred tank reactor CSTR.
Simple regression yielded a good predictive model that gave a correlation of 0. Such models can also be used to keep check on digestion process for optimization of biogas yield and deciding the substrate feeding rate and concentration on time scale Ali et al. Biogas produced from cow manure in a L semi-continuous digester and working at ambient temperatures turned out that the loading rate affects the yield and productivity of biogas, where the increase in substrate loading rate decreased the production and yield of biogas Haryanto et al.
The two-stage thermophilic digestion process could effectively enhance biohydrogen and biomethane production, as well as reducing organic waste simultaneously Wongthanate and Mongkarothai As found previously, thermophilic bacteria are of great importance in organic matter decomposition during thermophilic composting.
Mesophilic fungi were detected only in the initial stages of composting, before quickly diminishing. The volume of daily biogas yield from the four treatments is shown in Fig. The feedstock of all treatments contain easily hydrolyzed organic compounds such as sugar, fatty acids, and amino acids, which can be quickly converted into biogas and other gases, and peak after two digestive days.
This result contrasted with previous studies, which concluded that the biogas yield on the 10th day was 7. The best biogas productivity was The above research proved that the thermophilic pretreatment process in fruit waste could provide more feedstock for the next process of anaerobic digestion methanogenesis , so the process runs faster and more biogas and digestate were produced.
Ward et al. Previous research has shown that the generation of thermophilic biohydrogen from food waste was achieved at optimal conditions at initial pH 7. Hydrogen-fermented waste can be used as a substrate for the production of thermophilic biomethane, which was obtained optimally at an initial pH of 7.
Therefore, a two-stage process in a controlled system to process organic food waste material at optimal conditions can increase bioenergy production Wongthanate and Mongkarothai The optimum conditions for acidogenesis and methanogenesis at pH range from 6.
The maximum PT efficiency in sludge disintegration can be achieved in combination with heat treatment and low chemical-related costs. Some advantages of the PT were increasing the yield of methane and biogas, causing increased degradation of sludge during anaerobic digestion, the drainage capacity of higher digestible sludge, and reducing the amount of waste to be disposed of in relation to WAS from waste water treatment plants Nagler et al. Referring to the daily and total biogas production, it is proven that single or mixed fruit waste can produce biogas.
The biogas production through anaerobic digestion offers significant advantages over other forms of bioenergy production. The digestate allows an accurate dosage and integration in a fertilization plan with a reduced application of additional mineral nitrogen fertilizers Weiland The difference in the quantity of digestate results was due to the water content of the waste papaya higher than the others.
In contrast, the highest weight of dry compost was produced by banana waste and followed by a decreasing by mixture of banana waste—papaya waste 1. This condition can be explained that the weight of dry compost, as plant solid-biomass was constitutive to the quantity of digestate. The highest growth was achieved by the treatment of liquid organic fertilizers derived from banana digestate liquid LD followed by decrease by digestate from a mixture of banana—papaya 1.
The experiment proved that LD's treatment as a liquid organic fertilizer was able to be an adequate supplier of nutrients for ground spinach plans. Digestates may have an N, P and K macronutrient composition that was not optimal for plant growth needs, but variations in P and K content were within the suitable range for crop production Sogn et al.
Both effects increase the short-term N fertilization effect. Due to the improved flow properties, the digestate can penetrate faster in the soil which reduces the risk for nitrogen losses by ammonia emissions. Anaerobic digestion results also in a significant reduction of odors and in a positive change in the composition of odors. Sediment from biogas digester can be used as material for the generation of vermicompos. The quality of raw materials determines the physico-chemical characteristics of vermicompost.
The results show that vermicompost can be introduced as a technology to convert organic waste into value-added products Yadav and Garg The biogas digester was performing of thermophilic initial decomposition in its pre-treatment tank.
In the pretreatment tank, complex organic compounds, cellulose and hemicellulose were decomposed intensively converted as substrates for anaerobic digestion. As feedstock, each 4-kg banana waste, papaya waste, mix of banana—papaya waste in weight ratio of , and mix of banana—papaya waste in weight ratio of 1.
Int J Waste Resour —4. Dhoble AS, Pullammanappalli PC Design and operation of an anaerobic digester for waste management and fuel generation during long term lunar mission.
Adv Space Res — Springer Int Pub, Cham, pp — Google Scholar. Haryanto A, Triyono S, Wicaksono NH Effect of hydraulic retention time on biogas production from cow dung in a semi continuous anaerobic digester.
Int J Renew Energy Dev — Des Stud — Indonesian Goverment Regulation Number 81 of on Household and similar waste management. Indonesian National Legislation Number 18 of on Waste management. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag — Nakasaki K, Nag K, Karita S Microbial succession associated with organic matter decomposition during thermophilic composting of organic waste.
Waste Manag Res — Makara J Sci — Pub Libr Sci J 9:e Bioresour Technol —
Metrics details. Pig manure utilization and valorization is an important topic with tightening regulations focused on ecological and safety issues. By itself pig manure is a poor substrate for biogas production because of its excessive nitrogen content relative to available organic carbon. Such substrate is alkaline, and methanogenesis can be suppressed, and so additional substrates with high organic carbon must be added. The most promising is straw, which is available from adjacent biogas plant cultures.
The United States produces more than 70 million tons of organic waste each year. While source reduction and feeding the hungry are necessary priorities for reducing needless food waste, organic wastes are numerous and extend to non-edible sources, including livestock manure, agriculture wastes, waste water, and inedible food wastes. When these wastes are improperly managed, they pose a significant risk to the environment and public health.
Biogas is the mixture of gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen anaerobically , primarily consisting of methane and carbon dioxide.
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