vitamins and its deficiency diseases pdf

Vitamins And Its Deficiency Diseases Pdf

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Multiple signs are therefore seen, although in general, signs of B vitamin deficiencies appear first.

Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

The tables below list the vitamins , what they do in the body their functions , and their sources in food. Water-soluble vitamins travel freely through the body, and excess amounts usually are excreted by the kidneys. The body needs water-soluble vitamins in frequent, small doses. These vitamins are not as likely as fat-soluble vitamins to reach toxic levels. But niacin, vitamin B6, folate, choline, and vitamin C have upper consumption limits. Vitamin B6 at high levels over a long period of time has been shown to cause irreversible nerve damage. A balanced diet usually provides enough of these vitamins.

Nutritional Deficiencies (Malnutrition)

Vitamin A deficiency can result from inadequate intake, fat malabsorption, or liver disorders. Deficiency impairs immunity and hematopoiesis and causes rashes and typical ocular effects eg, xerophthalmia, night blindness. Diagnosis is based on typical ocular findings and low vitamin A levels. Treatment consists of vitamin A given orally or, if symptoms are severe or malabsorption is the cause, parenterally. Vitamin A is required for the formation of rhodopsin, a photoreceptor pigment in the retina see table Sources, Functions, and Effects of Vitamins. Vitamin A helps maintain epithelial tissues and is important for lysosome stability and glycoprotein synthesis.

Vitamin B 12 is essential for DNA synthesis and for cellular energy production. This review aims to outline the metabolism of vitamin B 12 , and to evaluate the causes and consequences of sub-clinical vitamin B 12 deficiency. Vitamin B 12 deficiency is common, mainly due to limited dietary intake of animal foods or malabsorption of the vitamin. Vegetarians are at risk of vitamin B 12 deficiency as are other groups with low intakes of animal foods or those with restrictive dietary patterns. Malabsorption of vitamin B 12 is most commonly seen in the elderly, secondary to gastric achlorhydria. The symptoms of sub-clinical deficiency are subtle and often not recognized.

Vitamins and minerals in a very important topic of Biology to prepare for any competitive exam. Many questions are asked about scientific names and disease caused due to their deficiencies. So here is the article to prepare vitamins and minerals for the exam. Vitamins and minerals are essential for human beings, need to be taken in daily diet. There are a total of 13 essential vitamins and minerals, required by the body for the proper functioning of the body. Vitamin is a combination of two Latin words "Vita" and "amine" which means life and nitrogen, respectively.

Vitamin Deficiency Diseases List PDF

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. B vitamins are a group of eight essential nutrients that play roles in many organs and bodily systems.

Vitamins: Their Functions and Sources

Vitamin Deficiency Diseases PDF

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. The body requires many different vitamins and minerals that are crucial for both body development and preventing disease. These vitamins and minerals are often referred to as micronutrients.

Vitamin deficiency is the condition of a long-term lack of a vitamin. When caused by not enough vitamin intake it is classified as a primary deficiency , whereas when due to an underlying disorder such as malabsorption it is called a secondary deficiency. An underlying disorder may be metabolic — as in a genetic defect for converting tryptophan to niacin — or from lifestyle choices that increase vitamin needs, such as smoking or drinking alcohol. Conversely hypervitaminosis refers to symptoms caused by vitamin intakes in excess of needs, especially for fat-soluble vitamins that can accumulate in body tissues. The history of the discovery of vitamin deficiencies progressed over centuries from observations that certain conditions — for example, scurvy — could be prevented or treated with certain foods having high content of a necessary vitamin , to the identification and description of specific molecules essential for life and health. During the 20th century , several scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine or the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their roles in the discovery of vitamins. A number of regions have published guidelines defining vitamin deficiencies and advising specific intakes for healthy people, with different recommendations for women, men, infants, the elderly, and during pregnancy and breast feeding including Japan , the European Union , the United States, and Canada.


In this section, questions related to Vitamins, about their. Sources, Benefits and Deficiency Diseases have been asked. Hence it becomes very important for all.


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A complete guide to B vitamins

4 comments

Archaimbau D.

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Cussesulcoi

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Alphonse N.

Vitamin deficiency anemia occurs when the body has fewer healthy red blood cells than is normal.

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