Islam Ideology And Leading Issues Pdf
File Name: islam ideology and leading issues .zip
- How the Islamic State Rose, Fell and Could Rise Again in the Maghreb
- Theories of Ideology
- The Politics of Islamism
- Religion and Politics in Iran
The Islamic State is no mere collection of psychopaths. It is a religious group with carefully considered beliefs, among them that it is a key agent of the coming apocalypse. What is the Islamic State? Where did it come from, and what are its intentions? The simplicity of these questions can be deceiving, and few Western leaders seem to know the answers.
How the Islamic State Rose, Fell and Could Rise Again in the Maghreb
Ideology is the lens through which a person views the world. Within the field of sociology, ideology is broadly understood to refer to the sum total of a person's values, beliefs, assumptions, and expectations. Ideology exists within society, within groups, and between people. It shapes our thoughts, actions, and interactions, along with what happens in society at large. Ideology is a fundamental concept in sociology.
Sociologists study it because it plays such a powerful role in shaping how society is organized and how it functions.
Ideology is directly related to the social structure, economic system of production, and political structure. It both emerges out of these things and shapes them. Often, when people use the word "ideology" they are referring to a particular ideology rather than the concept itself. For example, many people, especially in the media, refer to extremist views or actions as being inspired by a particular ideology for example, "radical Islamic ideology" or " white power ideology " or as "ideological.
However, the concept of ideology itself is actually general in nature and not tied to one particular way of thinking. In this sense, sociologists define ideology as a person's worldview and recognize that there are various and competing ideologies operating in a society at any given time, some more dominant than others.
Ultimately, ideology determines how we make sense of things. It provides an ordered view of the world, our place in it, and our relationship to others. According to Marx, ideology emerges out of a society's mode of production. According to Marx, the superstructure of society, the realm of ideology, grows out of the base, the realm of production, to reflect the interests of the ruling class and justify the status quo that keeps them in power.
Marx, then, focused his theory on the concept of a dominant ideology. However, he viewed the relationship between base and superstructure as dialectical in nature, meaning that each affects the other equally and that a change in one necessitates a change in the other. This belief formed the basis for Marx's theory of revolution. The working-class revolution that Marx predicted never happened. Educational institutions, Gramsci argued, teach ideas, beliefs, values, and even identities that reflect the interests of the ruling class, and produce compliant and obedient members of society that serve the interests of that class.
This type of rule is what Gramsci called cultural hegemony. They argued that just as education plays a role in this process, so do the social institutions of media and popular culture. Their theories of ideology focused on the representational work that art, popular culture, and mass media do in telling stories about society, its members, and our way of life. Around the same time, the French philosopher Louis Althusser developed his concept of the "ideological state apparatus," or the ISA.
According to Althusser, the dominant ideology of any given society is maintained and reproduced through several ISAs, notably the media, religion, and education. Althusser argued that each ISA does the work of promoting illusions about the way society works and why things are the way they are. In the modern United States, the dominant ideology is one that, in keeping with Marx's theory, supports capitalism and the society organized around it.
The central tenet of this ideology is that U. A key supporting tenet is the idea that work is morally valuable, no matter the job. Within the logic of this ideology, those who work hard are guaranteed to see success.
Marx would argue that these ideas, values, and assumptions work to justify a reality in which a very small class of people holds most of the authority within corporations, firms, and financial institutions.
These beliefs also justify a reality in which the vast majority of people are simply workers within the system. While these ideas may reflect the dominant ideology in modern America, there are in fact other ideologies that challenge them and the status quo they represent. The radical labor movement, for example, offers an alternative ideology—one that instead assumes that the capitalist system is fundamentally unequal and that those who have amassed the greatest wealth are not necessarily deserving of it.
This competing ideology asserts that the power structure is controlled by the ruling class and is designed to impoverish the majority for the benefit of a privileged minority.
Labor radicals throughout history have fought for new laws and public policies that would redistribute wealth and promote equality and justice. Share Flipboard Email. Table of Contents Expand.
Ideology vs. Particular Ideologies. Marx's Theory of Ideology. Gramsci's Additions to Marx's Theory of Ideology. Examples of Ideology. Nicki Lisa Cole, Ph. Sociology Expert. Nicki Lisa Cole is a sociologist. Cite this Article Format. Cole, Nicki Lisa, Ph. Theories of Ideology. What Is Political Socialization? Definition and Examples. Definition of Base and Superstructure.
By using ThoughtCo, you accept our.
Theories of Ideology
Yet it is also possible to argue that the period of Western domination was merely an interlude in the ongoing development of indigenous styles of modernization. The three major Muslim empires did experience a decline during the 18th century, as compared with their own earlier power and with the rising powers in Europe , but most Muslims were not yet aware that Europe was partly to blame. Similar decline had occurred many times before, a product of the inevitable weaknesses of the military-conquest state turned into centralized absolutism , overdependence on continuous expansion, weakening of training for rule, the difficulty of maintaining efficiency and loyalty in a large and complex royal household and army, and the difficulty of maintaining sufficient revenues for an increasingly lavish court life. Furthermore, population increased, as it did almost everywhere in the 18th-century world, just as inflation and expensive reform reduced income to central governments. Had Muslims remained on a par with all other societies, they might have revived. But by the 18th century one particular set of societies in western Europe had developed an economic and social system capable of transcending the 5,year-old limitations of the agrarian-based settled world as defined by the Greeks—who called it Oikoumene. Unlike most of the lands of Islamdom, those societies were rich in natural resources especially the fossil fuels that could supplement human and animal power and poor in space for expansion.
Skip to main content. Search form Search. Sistani laws. Sistani laws sistani laws 5 Shia Patronage: 3 Views and edicts 3. He is a member of a well-known family of religious scholars and began studying at the age of 5. Daily Prayers, Fasting, Khums etc.
The Politics of Islamism
Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal. Contacto: mohomed. In , Muhammad Iqbal devised for the first time the creation of a separate state for the Indian Muslims, for whom, according to him, the main formative force through History had been Islam.
Secularism has been a controversial concept in Islamic political thought, owing in part to historical factors and in part to the ambiguity of the concept itself. Some Islamic reformists like Ali Abdel Raziq and Mahmoud Mohammed Taha have advocated a secular state in the sense of political order that does not impose any single interpretation of sharia on the nation. A number of pre-modern polities in the Islamic world demonstrated some level of separation between religious and political authority, even if they did not adhere to the modern concept of a state with no official religion or religion-based laws. The exact jurisdiction of these courts varies from country to country, but usually includes marriage, divorce, inheritance, and guardianship.
Share via:. In an address at the Capital Hilton in Washington, D. This article will discuss the nature of ideologies and examine the extent to which the Salafi-jihad can be compared to other ideologies such as fascism or communism. It concludes that the Salafi-jihad is best described as a religious ideology rather than a secular ideology such as fascism or National Socialism.
Religion and Politics in Iran
Algeria, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia should go beyond security and military measures to address persistent local grievances and tensions that ISIS has proven adept in exploiting. In this sense, and while ISIS does not consider the Maghreb its main arena for any of those three forms of activity, how it performed in the region, and how states reacted to its rise, tells us a lot about the organisation. To much of the outside world, Tunisia is known equally for its relatively successful democratic transition as for the fact that it boasts the highest ratio per capita of people who have joined ISIS to fight outside their country. But its ability to recruit in these countries suggests a series of factors that gave rise to a more conducive environment: a demand for a quasi-revolutionary, anti-establishment discourse and practice, especially among young people who blame their relative deprivation on structural injustice chiefly Tunisia ; a security apparatus in disarray Libya and Tunisia ; the ascent and subsequent reining in of a more political, pragmatic form of Islamism Tunisia ; the presence of pre-existing networks of a jihadist or militant variety Libya, Tunisia and Morocco ; and either lack of regional or international coordination or, worse, regional actors backing rival groups Libya. Progress has been made to address several of these matters, but not all, and almost certainly not in a sustainable manner. Its propaganda emphasised perceptions of injustice shared by large swathes of the population — particularly those from marginalised regions and poor urban peripheries that most often encounter state brutality, corruption and social exclusion.
In , Mahmoud Ahmadinejad of Iran closed a speech at the United Nations with a call for the "mighty Lord" to " hasten the emergence " of Imam Mahdi, a direct descendent of the Prophet Muhammad. Shia Islam holds that the Mahdi, as the redeemer of Islam, will return from hiding to rid the world of injustice. The debate reached a boil in May The president also indirectly accused senior clerics of economic corruption, further upsetting the Iranian clergy and shining a rare spotlight on the increasingly tenuous relationship between politics and faith in post-revolution Iran. While some would date the birth of political Islam to the life of the prophet, political and religious disagreements that have arisen since the Islamic Revolution of have their roots in the evolution of the contemporary Iranian state. In , a young military officer, Reza Khan, led a coup that deposed the year-old Qajar dynasty and founded the Pahlavi dynasty. After being named shah, Reza Khan pursued relations with Germany, angering Britain and Russia, and prompting those powers to invade.
National Library of Australia. Search the catalogue for collection items held by the National Library of Australia. Ali, Anwar. Request this item to view in the Library's reading rooms using your library card. To learn more about how to request items watch this short online video.
The Taliban is a predominantly Pashtun, Islamic fundamentalist group that ruled Afghanistan from until , when a U. The Taliban regrouped across the border in Pakistan and has led an insurgency against the U. In , the Taliban signed a peace agreement with the United States and entered into power-sharing negotiations with the Afghan government. However, the Taliban continues to launch attacks against government and civilian targets and controls dozens of Afghan districts. The intra-Afghan talks have mostly stalled, raising questions about whether U.
During the Meccan period c. In their articulation of international law , classical Muslim jurists were primarily concerned with issues of state security and military defense of Islamic realms, and, accordingly, they focused primarily on jihad as a military duty, which became the predominant meaning in legal and official literature. Submitting to political realism, however, many premodern Muslim jurists went on to permit wars of expansion in order to extend Muslim rule over non-Muslim realms.