Industrial Revolution And Its Impact On Environment Pdf
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New technology is evolving rapidly, creating new environmental and industrial challenges that must be considered. Technology continues to focus on the demands of industry to increase efficiency and production output.
At the same time, industry must quickly adapt to new technologies in order to compete and grow and also face the increased awareness for the need to evaluate and mitigate environmental impact. Recent studies indicate that the use of automation in the workplace will nearly double in the next few years. If we look at the control room as being the core of the industrial environment, the focus was previously on the physical and automated components.
Little focus has been on the humans that control this rapidly evolving technology, and there is still not enough focus on the most critical component that can not only impact production and output but also create a negative impact on the environment as a result of human error that could have been avoided. It is time to take a step back and look at what impact the humans are having on the environment as a result of the rapidly changing technology.
Natural Resources Management and Biological Sciences. If we look at the generally accepted definition of the word environment as the natural world, and industry as the processing of raw materials from this natural world, then the link between the human impact on industry and the environment can be easily understood.
Industry is a man-made function developed specifically to maximize the value of raw materials. The next logical step is to examine how human error can be directly related to negative environmental impact and how this could be mitigated, if not prevented.
If we look back in history at the evolution of industry, we can see a pattern emerge as industry began and continues to be more driven by technology. With Industry 4. No matter how quickly technology advances, industry will always ultimately be controlled by humans. The risk of human error must be mitigated—one mistake can result in huge and in some cases irreversible environmental damage. The increasing need for a focus on the psycho-social work environment must be considered.
How has this critical element been downplayed to a point that it is almost non-existent when it comes to evaluating environmental risk? The purpose of this chapter is to take a step back and identify some key considerations that should be a baseline when analyzing the impact of industry on the environment. Industry is driven by technology which can be traced back to the beginning of the first industrial revolution in the eighteenth century.
This is commonly understood as the transformation from an agrarian economy to one that was transformed by industry and machine manufacturing. The technological changes involved the use of iron and steel, new energy sources including fuel and coal, and the invention of new machines to process these sources to increase production which then led to the development of factories to house the machines [ 1 ].
This was followed by the second industrial revolution, which led to the development of automated factories, and an expansion into the use of additional resources such as different metals, as well as the start of production of other products plastics and chemicals for example that required the further development of automation and factories as well as the start of mass production. The third industrial revolution, brought semiconductors, computing and later on the internet—this is known as the Digital Revolution [ 2 ].
Now it is generally accepted that we are now into the fourth industrial revolution, or Industry 4. The result is even further and quicker development of technologies, automation and factories that are developing more rapidly than we thought possible. If we look at the advancement of industry through each of these periods, there are two key elements that need to be considered as critical, especially as they relate to human factors and the potential impact on the environment.
First, as factories became more automated, the processes also became more streamlined—over time it became possible to control multiple actions within an industrial setting from one centralized area: the control room. Second, as automated and advanced these processes became and continue to become , the human was, and today still is, involved. No matter how advanced the technology, there is always a human either watching the process or controlling the process and, in many cases, it is both.
As much as technology facilitates industrial automation, it also creates new challenges. Smart and intuitive technology and the resulting requirement for increased employee expertise will have a major impact on how these new technologies are both implemented and at the same time controlled.
The control room is the core of all industrial production facilities—this is where technology is monitored, analyzed and where all processes that are taking place as part of production are operated. Operators today are overloaded, and unless we consider all aspects to mitigate the stress of the environment in the control room, it will affect not only production but also safety and has the potential to lead to both positive and negative impact on the environment as a whole.
If we look at a few well-known major disasters that had major impact on the environment, we can see where and how human error was identified as the cause. Take for example Union Carbide in Bhopal, India in The analysis of that accident determined two out of three safety systems in place were shut down or broken—operators were so used to hearing alarms go off, for other reasons, they did not pay attention to the one that was critical resulting in 40 tons of toxic gas and chemicals released into the environment [ 4 ].
Which raises the question of how could this have been avoided? Why was there no system in place to prevent this? It would suggest that had the safety systems been updated, repaired or at the very least maintained, this might have been avoided.
A few years later there was Chernobyl in In that case, control room operators ran the plant at very low power, without adequate safety precautions and without properly coordinating or communicating the proper procedures with other personnel, the end result being the meltdown of one of the nuclear reactors [ 5 ]. With both of these disasters, there is still no definitive estimate of the resulting impact on the environment; however, it is undoubtably substantial and ongoing.
Many studies of both examples have been done, and many questions asked about technology and physical and mechanical failure. Yet ultimately, both were traced back to the control room and the operator—human error. There have been many articles and analyses of this very well-known disaster, but the common underlying theme in these studies ultimately also points back to the key cause of this disaster: human error.
In this case, it was multiple events all leading back to the human that resulted in the disaster. Could this have been avoided? With the explosion on the Deepwater Horizon offshore oil rig in , the analysis of the cause was multifaceted. It was a combination of years of cutting corners while moving forward with technology and advances, not one careless mistake that was to blame—however, one key point in this case was that despite all the experience of the crew on the rig, combined with the technology, the operators did not see the sign of trouble until it was too late, and did not act quickly enough to contain it, in fact did not know how to [ 9 ].
Environmental impact in this case was substantial: the oil was toxic to a wide range of organisms, including fish, birds, and sea mammals such as dolphins and sea turtles, not to mention corals as well as other ecosystems [ 10 ].
The final report on the Deepwater explosion concluded that it was not mechanical failure, but human error that was the root cause of the explosion [ 11 ]. Not only was the actual disaster caused by an error from the operator controlling the technology, we can see that it was human error on multiple levels which led to the disaster—regulators, management focusing on cutting costs with the expectation to increase financial results, all the way down the chain to the operator who failed to react correctly in a critical situation.
In , there was the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear explosion in Japan. Where the initial thought was that the blame for this incident could be directly related to an earthquake and the tsunami that followed, reality is that this disaster was also the result of human error. Once again, a major disaster with ongoing effect on the environment that is still having an impact today. And once again, a multifaceted case of human error on more than one level. A more recent example was the Columbia Gas explosions in Massachusetts in According to US Federal investigators preliminary report, customers received gas from a low-pressure distribution network, which in turn was fed from high pressure main pipeline.
At the time, workers were replacing some of the piping but due to faulty procedures, faulty work orders and lack of proper communication, full pressure from the main pipeline fed into the local distribution network, which then lead to a chain reaction resulting in multiple explosions [ 14 ].
Once again, a large-scale disaster caused directly by human error. Some of the dangers of natural gas are obvious such as pollution, and the resulting impact on public health, and some are not so obvious, including but not limited to the impact on mental health as a result of major incidents such as the one in noted above as well as the fear of potential similar incidents occurring in the future. Considering that there are thousands of miles of outdated infrastructure, and no real way of predicting when the next explosion might occur [ 15 ], the concerns are very real.
The outdated infrastructure not only applies to the gas industry, but undoubtably in every major industry worldwide. This not only is a concern due to the potential loss of life caused by these accidents, but also the resulting potential effects on the environment as a whole. The above-mentioned cases further serve to highlight the fact that the human is often forgotten when major environmental disasters occur. It is important to note that it is now , and the risk of human error is still viewed as an afterthought.
A key point to consider is that as we are now in the midst of the fourth industrial revolution, the focus is arguably even more on increasing production, combined with continuing to advance technology to aid in this goal.
Yet the role of the human as an integral part of this is still being underestimated, not the least of which is the lack of focus of the direct effect of the human on the environment, and conversely, the effect of the industrial control room environment on the human.
As environmental impact is becoming more of a worldwide concern on a large scale, the actual physical environment where the human is monitoring and effectively tasked with preventing a major incident must also become a priority. With the ongoing and increasing demand for governments to react to increasing concerns of the effect of industry on the environment and climate change, the pressure is increasing even more on industry to actively focus on ways to contribute to the solution.
So what does this mean for industry? With the push on efficiency leading to the development of even more advanced technology, the impact of this on the human as well as the role of the operator seems to be falling to the wayside. It is not simply a question of updating dated infrastructure and adding extra screens for the operator in the control room to monitor. No matter how advanced technology becomes, it will always be designed and operated by the human.
The key factor being that it is the humans who are the one who will ultimately push or not push the button to prevent a future large-scale disaster. As we can see all frequently, major industrial disasters are still taking place.
At what point will industry take a step back and realize that the operational environment can have a direct impact on the natural environment? As technology and automation continue to rapidly evolve, the focus of industry must now shift from not only increasing production, maximizing efficiency, and reducing environmental impact through cutting emissions among other key factors, but also analyzing the humans who are controlling the technology to achieve this, and specifically, the environment in which this technology is centered.
As stated previously, the control room is the centralized location where all technology is monitored. The main goal of an effective control room is to ensure production is continual, uninterrupted and efficient, with as minimal downtime as possible. Creating a control room that considers the human element is one of the most challenging yet also arguably the most critical factor when contemplating not only how to optimize production, but also how to prevent serious environmental impact.
The technology needs to be effective, but the human machine interface HMI must also be a key focus. What has been neglected previously must now be considered—the control room needs to factor in as many points as technology does when it advances. The psycho-social aspect of the control room environment and the human involvement can no longer be ignored. There have been many papers written about specific elements of a control room, more often than not looking at ways to increase efficiency, production, and updating technology; however, the focus on the operator in this environment is still a secondary element that is not often considered when evaluating industrial advancement.
There is so much technology out there today we are still learning what it does—the amount of information that is instantly available at the touch of a button is unprecedented. If you consider this within the environment of an industrial control room, the amount of information that is monitoring every aspect of production and subsequently immediately provided to the operator can be overwhelming to the average person. The operators are having to process massive amounts of information quickly, accurately, and safely.
Unfortunately, this is not easy, and there are many challenges which are continuing to grow as fast as the advances. There are many challenges industry is facing when considering the control room environment. When speaking to companies across various industrial environments today, there are multiple concerns that surface almost immediately.
As the discussion continues, often we find out that in actual fact, the technology is causing more problems than previously thought. Referring back to the Union Carbide disaster, it was noted that there were so many alarms going off in the control room that the operators chose to ignore the one that was truly critical. What is concerning is that this is still occurring today. Recent discussions with an oil company led to the operation manager stating that the operators in the control room were dealing with 86, alarms a day, which meant each operator was dealing with approximately 60 alarms per minute, or one alarm going off every second.
It simply is not humanly possible for an operator to be able to process and react to that kind of situation. In this case, the alarms simply become white noise, or background noise, and are ignored as way for the operator to be able to cope with the constant barrage of notifications. A similar situation was noted in an amino acid producing company, where the operations supervisor stated that the operators had been experiencing so many alarms, that they had simply decided to turn them all off to try to reduce the operator stress.
When asked how they were monitoring to ensure there were no major indicators of serious problems, the response was they were watching the screens.
Working with our environment: an introduction
This report focuses on the role that Fourth Industrial Revolution 4IR technologies can play in improving the environment. In particular, it explores the role of 4IR in reducing air pollution and decarbonising the economy. It is the fourth in a series of SMF reports on 4IR, following our reports on the use of 4IR in the home and the workplace, and our report earlier in on 4IR in local government. This report identifies a number of channels through which 4IR technologies can tackle the environmental challenges associated with air pollution and global warming. These include:. In addition, set a target for reducing rates of car ownership, and increasing the proportion of journeys made on foot, bike and public transport. Cities and large towns should aim for a quarter of journeys to be made by bicycle — a similar proportion to the Netherlands.
About 10 mins. If those 10 technologies are the cause, then this module explains the effect. One of the main effects of the Fourth Industrial Revolution is increased human productivity. In this module, we talk about the impact of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, including the positive and the potentially negative. Customers today expect to get an answer anytime, on any channel they choose. Whether they tweet, email, chat, or call, they want instant, personalized service. Well, the technologies around us have evolved, bringing customer expectations with them.
Industry 4. Come with us on a journey through the technologies driving this process and its accelerating advance. The impact of the Fourth Industrial Revolution 4IR will be broader reaching and faster than any of its predecessors. We all studied the First Industrial Revolution at school. In which the steam engine patented by James Watt in played an important role.
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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. The current environmental problems have been created by the development of industrial society since the industrial revolution.
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FIR has a more powerful impact on the economy than in the past. However, the prospects for the labor environment are uncertain. The purpose of this study is to anticipate and prepare for occupational health and safety OHS issues. In FIR, nonstandard employment will be common. As a result, it is difficult to receive OHS services and compensation.
New technology is evolving rapidly, creating new environmental and industrial challenges that must be considered. Technology continues to focus on the demands of industry to increase efficiency and production output.
What Are Some of the Drawbacks of Industrialization?
This article provides the first rigorous estimates of how industrial air pollution from coal burning affects long-run city growth. I introduce a new theoretically grounded strategy for estimating this relationship and apply it to data from highly polluted British cities from to I show that local industrial coal use substantially reduced long-run city employment and population growth. Moreover, a counterfactual analysis suggests that plausible improvements in coal-use efficiency would have led to a higher urbanisation rate in Britain by
- Мисс Флетчер, вы проделали уже немалую часть пути. Постарайтесь пройти по нему до конца. Сьюзан вздохнула: - Программа принимает ключ только в цифровой форме. Мне кажется, что тут содержится некий намек на то, что это за цифра. В тексте названы Хиросима и Нагасаки, города, разрушенные атомными бомбами.
Environmental Impact of the Industrial Revolution Rivers and canals polluted by sewage and industrial waste. 2. Cholera killed many for its products. Most of.
1. Empirical Setting
Передо мной лежит отчет, из которого следует, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ бьется над каким-то файлом уже восемнадцать часов и до сих пор не вскрыл шифр. Джабба обильно полил приправой кусок пирога на тарелке. - Что-что. - Как это тебе нравится. Он аккуратно размазал приправу кончиком салфетки.
Если он использует адрес университета или корпорации, времени уйдет немного. - Она через силу улыбнулась. - Остальное будет зависеть от. Сьюзан знала, что остальное - это штурмовая группа АНБ, которая, перерезав электрические провода, ворвется в дом с автоматами, заряженными резиновыми пулями. Члены группы будут уверены, что производят облаву на наркодельцов.
Компания Ай-би-эм предоставила ему визу и предложила работу в Техасе. Танкадо ухватился за это предложение. Через три года он ушел из Ай-би-эм, поселился в Нью-Йорке и начал писать программы. Его подхватила новая волна увлечения криптографией. Он писал алгоритмы и зарабатывал неплохие деньги.
Втроем, - поправила Сьюзан.
Что случилось. По голосу Стратмора, мягкому и спокойному, никто никогда не догадался бы, что мир, в котором он жил, рушится у него на глазах. Он отступил от двери и отошел чуть в сторону, пропуская Чатрукьяна в святая святых Третьего узла.
Вирус? - холодно переспросил директор. - Вы оба думаете, что в нашем компьютере вирус. Бринкерхофф растерянно заморгал. - Да, сэр, - сказала Мидж. - Потому что Стратмор обошел систему Сквозь строй? - Фонтейн опустил глаза на компьютерную распечатку.
К черту кодекс чести, - сказала она. - Посмотрим, чем ты тут занимаешься.