Solutions To Bullying Fear And Learning In Secondary Schools In Nigeria Pdf
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- Prevalence and correlates of bullying in physiotherapy education in Nigeria
- Interventions on Bullying and Cyberbullying in Schools: A Systematic Review
- School bullying
- Interventions on Bullying and Cyberbullying in Schools: A Systematic Review
Prevalence and correlates of bullying in physiotherapy education in Nigeria
Help us continue to fight human rights abuses. Please give now to support our work. Download the "easy to read" version.
An increase in school enrolments from 40 to 60 percent is applauded as a success, not recorded as a violation of the right to education of the 40 percent of children who remain excluded from school. In recent years, many countries have been part of international and regional political drives to ensure that all children have access and complete education in the countries that lag behind the most. Such efforts have had some success, with tens of millions entering primary education, and more girls staying in school and pursuing secondary education, improving gender parity in more countries.
More children and adolescents are at risk of dropping out of school, and many are at school facing unsuitable learning conditions. This not only undermines the fundamental human right to education, but has real and dire consequences for global development, and entire generations of children.
The benefits of education to both children and broader society could not be clearer. Education empowers children to be full and active participants in society, able to exercise their rights and engage in civil and political life. Education is also a powerful protection factor: children who are in school are less likely to come into conflict with the law and much less vulnerable to rampant forms of child exploitation, including child labor, trafficking, and recruitment into armed groups and forces.
Based on research in over 40 countries, this report looks at the key barriers that threaten the right to education today, and the key ways that governments are failing to deliver on core aspects of their right to education obligations.
These include ensuring that primary school education is free and compulsory and that secondary education is progressively free and accessible to all children; reducing costs related to education, such as transport; ensuring that schools are free of discrimination, including based on gender, race, and disability; and ensuring schools are free of violence and sexual abuse.
It also looks at the main violations and abuses keeping children out of school, including those that occur in global crises, armed conflict—particularly when education is attacked by armed groups,—and forced displacement. In the new era of sustainable development, where all countries are expected to implement a universal development agenda, all governments need to be held to account for ongoing human rights abuses affecting a significant part of their young population, as well as a failure to provide adequate or timely protections to which children are entitled under the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
Moreover, a global push for universal primary education through development agendas has, in some cases, unintentionally led to less political and financial attention being paid to the right to secondary education, resulting in millions of adolescents being unable to continue their studies.
As this report shows, these are children and adolescents who are at high risk of exploitation for child labor, early marriage or teenage pregnancy, as well as girls and young people with disabilities whose chance of receiving secondary education is already limited by systemic and discriminatory barriers.
First and foremost, ending the education deficit means ensuring every child has a quality primary and secondary education—without the financial and systemic obstacles many face today—and that relevant governments tackle the numerous violations, abuses, or situations that keep children out of school.
This in turn depends on political will to institute strong governance systems, including via the judiciary, to uphold and fulfill the right to education. It also depends on international actors who set policy globally and engage in education through technical and international cooperation. Donors, multilateral financial bodies—including the World Bank and the Global Partnership for Education,—and international agencies that help governments to implement ambitious education plans should recall their responsibilities to uphold human rights standards and not compromise on key abuses that leave children out of school.
This is particularly the case with international actors working with governments unwilling to provide greater protections to minorities, refugees, or persons who have been made stateless; or in cases where governments do not allocate sufficient resources to underserved areas or particular groups of children, particularly children with disabilities. The UN should continue to hold all governments to account for violations of the right to education. Globally, any champion country or government representative appointed to lead on global education issues must first abide by international human rights standards for all children in its territories and abroad, in cases where they also play a key role as donors, and be open to scrutiny by its own national civil society, as well as UN bodies reviewing its performance.
Education is a basic right enshrined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child CRC —the most widely ratified human rights treaty in history, ratified by all states except the United States—as well as in many other UN and regional treaties. State parties to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ICESCR must submit an action plan on how they will guarantee free and compulsory primary education to all children within two years of ratifying this treaty.
Education, an economic, social, and cultural right, entails state obligations of both an immediate and progressive kind. This set of rights is subject to progressive realization, in recognition of the fact that states require sufficient resources and time to respect, protect, and fulfill these rights. A lack of resources, or periods of economic crisis, cannot justify inaction, retrogression in implementation or indefinite postponement of measures to implement these rights.
States must demonstrate that they are making every effort to improve the enjoyment of economic, social and cultural rights, even when resources are scarce. They should also respect the human rights obligations that the recipient country has accepted under international as well as national law.
That same year, all UN member states signed onto the Millennium Development Goals MDGs , which aimed, among other things, to ensure all children complete primary education and that an equal number of girls and boys remain in school.
Five years after that, in , the international community acknowledged the enormous barriers children—including the million out of school—faced receiving an education, including lack of quality education, school fees and related expenses, discrimination, and widespread violence in schools. In , the initial emphasis on progress in education faltered, as domestic investment and multilateral and bilateral donor funding dedicated to education decreased dramatically as donors reduced their global aid budgets or diverted existing funds to other sectors, dealing a setback to ensuring children receive primary and secondary education.
This serves as a grim reminder that the world has yet to fulfil its original promise to provide every children with a primary education by All children have a right to go to school, to have equal access to education at all levels, and to be guaranteed a quality education. While many governments have focused on legislating the right to primary education, the right to secondary education—both lower and higher—remains unprotected and unfulfilled in many countries.
Guaranteeing equal access to schools to all children satisfies one basic component of the right to education. However, without a quality education, children may leave schools unmotivated, illiterate, and unprepared for life after education.
To make this happen, governments should put in place mechanisms to ensure education is widely available to all children on an equal and inclusive basis. Schools must be accessible, have qualified teachers and offer such amenities as textbooks and supplies for the poor. The following sections outline numerous human rights violations and key barriers to children being able to claim their right to education. But for us, we have to pay school fees.
The schools are away from our locations. Since then, most governments have accepted, through their ratification of various human rights treaties, a legal obligation to ensure primary education is free and compulsory, and to gradually make secondary education free and available to all.
While many governments have adopted policy measures to expand free primary education to all children,  some have not translated their international obligations into national legislation, which binds governments to provide free primary education to all children in their territories. This is a discriminatory practice. I passed [the exam] to go to secondary school. My mother did not have money to send me to secondary school.
She then forced me to get married saying it was improper for me to stay at home. Governments have an international obligation to make secondary education accessible and available to all children, and to progressively make secondary education free or take measures to fund students requiring financial assistance. Adolescents of lower secondary school age—ranging from 12 to16 years—are almost twice as likely to be out of school as primary school-age children, with 1 out of 6 not enrolled.
Yet, many governments have struggled to expand the availability of secondary education in line with demand from primary school graduates, and have not built enough infrastructure to cater to the increased demand for further levels of education.
Families often incur further financial obligations when their children proceed on to secondary education. Limited availability of secondary schools in rural or remote areas means students may have to pay to travel very long distances on a daily basis or rent rooms or pay for boarding facilities in bigger towns.
Parents may also prevent girls from accessing further levels of education due to costs and safety concerns when provision of education is limited. Human Rights Watch has found a strong correlation between child rights violations, such as the early marriage of girls under the age of 18, or the worst forms of child labor, and the expenses associated with secondary education.
Many girls interviewed by Human Rights Watch dropped out of secondary school because of fees and associated expenses and married at a young age. However, even the smallest associated costs in secondary education, including exam fees and private coaching, mean children from many of the poor families cannot attend school and are vulnerable to early marriage.
I would also have to pay for private tutoring and books. The removal of formal school fees significantly contributes to opening the school doors to the majority of children.
However, the associated costs of education in primary and secondary schools result in direct financial barriers—such as transport costs and payments for books, uniforms, stationery and equipment, exam fees or parent teacher association fees, and personal assistants for children with disabilities.
In Bangladesh, Morocco, and Tanzania, Human Rights Watch found that some indirect costs exclude poor children as a result of questionable practices by teachers.
Endah, a child domestic worker in Indonesia, explained to Human Rights Watch why she started work at age For example, Peter, in Lubumbashi, told us:. These additional—and often unofficial but obligatory—expenses lead to inconsistent attendance of children and eventual drop-outs, particularly of girls and children with disabilities, and particularly impact on secondary school-going students who often pay higher fees and expenses.
Parents or guardians may consider forcing children into harmful labor practices or early marriage to offset the costs of their education.
The teacher tells us to sit on the other side. Me and my cousin are the only two Syrians in the class. The teacher sent us to the back of the class. Once, going up the stairs with a Jordanian girl, I was told off and asked to go back to the line and wait until everybody went off.
On every continent, children suffer direct and indirect discrimination based on their gender, race, ethnicity, disability, religion, health status, or sexual orientation — or a combination of all—on a daily basis. In addition to removing any forms of direct discrimination against students, governments should also ensure indirect discrimination does not occur as a result of laws, policies, or practices which may have the effect of disproportionately impacting on the right to education of children who require further accommodation, or whose circumstances may not be the same as those of the majority school population.
Despite the numerous specific commitments to ensure that boys and girls have an equal right to education, adopted or endorsed by governments through special global initiatives, girls continue to face unique gender-specific barriers. The lack of acknowledgment of or dedicated action to remove direct or indirect forms of discrimination experienced by particular groups of children from minority groups continues to affect access to education for millions of children.
Some government continue to enforce discriminatory policies within their education systems. In a number of cases, persistent discrimination in schools — by school officials or teachers—may lead to drop-outs or lower school performance. In Nepal, for example, Human Rights Watch found that teachers adhere to social or cultural traditions which perpetuate discrimination in classrooms.
Sunita married a classmate of a different caste at the age of They decided to elope prompted by the harassment they faced in school. In , Human Rights Watch found that in Israel, Palestinian Arab and Bedouin children, as well as Palestinian children in East Jerusalem, faced discriminatory access to quality education relative to Jewish Israeli children.
Teachers often continue to make insulting remarks about Muslim and tribal students,  and Human Rights Watch found that village authorities would make efforts to encourage parents to send their girls to school when they were kept away by their families. The school said that he was naughty.
Subjects such as physics and chemistry were missing. When we asked to study more things, the staff members cited our diagnosis: profound mental retardation. We were not thinking about our diagnosis. We just wanted to learn something new. Human Rights Watch research indicates that many governments continue to have a strong focus on specialized, separate education for children with disabilities, with limited meaningful inclusion in mainstream schools.
This has often led to significant tension on what type of education is best for children with very different types of disabilities.
Click to expand Image A young boy sitting on the floor of a daycare center, playing with a camera. Suraj, a 9-year-old boy with a physical disability, does not attend school because his parents thought that no school would admit him. Inclusive education focuses on promoting accessibility, identifying and removing barriers to learning, and changing practices and attitudes in mainstream schools to accommodate the diverse learning needs of individual students. Rather than investing in more effective and cost-efficient changes to promote inclusive education in existing schools, Human Rights Watch has found that governments seeking to increase enrollment rates for children with disabilities focus on building costly special schools which cater to smaller numbers of children with disabilities, often grouping children by types of disabilities.
In Nepal, children with disabilities represent a substantial group of the primary school-aged children who remain out of school.
An estimated 85 percent of all out-of-school children in Nepal have disabilities. The enrollment of children with disabilities in primary and secondary education continued to decline in , despite government efforts which increased school scholarships for children with disabilities, developed a special curriculum for children with intellectual disabilities, and established a team tasked with developing a new national inclusive education policy. A reasonable accommodation fund should be set up to address the gaps.
Even when children with disabilities are in school, their education is often of poor quality. In Greece, India, Russia, Japan, and Serbia, among many other countries,  the harmful practice of institutionalizing children with disabilities continues, further isolating children from their communities, exposing them to violence and abuse in closed institutions, and depriving them of their right to education.
Interventions on Bullying and Cyberbullying in Schools: A Systematic Review
Background : bullying and cyberbullying is a widespread phenomenon among young people and it is used to describe interpersonal relationships characterized by an imbalance of power. In this relationships often show aggressive behavior and intentional "harm doing" repeated over time. The prevalence of bullying among youth has been reported to vary widely among countries 5. Several school interventions have been developed to reduce bullying, but reported inconsistent results possibly related to limitations in the study design or to other methodological shortcomings. Aims : evaluating randomized-controlled trials RTCs conducted between and to assess the effectiveness of school interventions on bullying and cyberbullying.
Help us continue to fight human rights abuses. Please give now to support our work. Download the "easy to read" version. An increase in school enrolments from 40 to 60 percent is applauded as a success, not recorded as a violation of the right to education of the 40 percent of children who remain excluded from school. In recent years, many countries have been part of international and regional political drives to ensure that all children have access and complete education in the countries that lag behind the most. Such efforts have had some success, with tens of millions entering primary education, and more girls staying in school and pursuing secondary education, improving gender parity in more countries. More children and adolescents are at risk of dropping out of school, and many are at school facing unsuitable learning conditions.
Cyberbullying is bullying which uses e-technology as a means of victimizing others. It is the use of internet media or mobile technologies such as email, chat room discussion groups, mobile phones, mobile phone cameras, web pages, text messages, with the intention of harming other persons. The methods used includes texting offensive messages on mobile phones, with students showing the message to others before sending it to the target; sending threatening emails and forwarding a confidential email to all address book contacts, thus publicly humiliating the first sender. Cyberbullying activities also include sending repeated negative messages, sexual and racist harassment, denigration, impersonation, trickery, exclusion and cyber stalking. The targeted person often feels powerless and may need help .
A guidance counselor is an indispensable part of any school administration in the elementary, middle school and high school levels. They are advocates in the students' whole being because they administer guidance of both their personal and school life. A counselor is usually licensed in their respective states and has a Master's degree in Arts, Science or Education. They have advance training in Psychology and Sociology to better assess the students' lives.
Interventions on Bullying and Cyberbullying in Schools: A Systematic Review
Student conflicts in secondary schools are one of the most common challenges faced in the 21 st century in the modern world. Kenya has faced several incidents of student conflicts in Secondary schools mainly attributed to the cases of indiscipline and conflicts among students in the schools. In Kericho County, several incidences of student conflicts have been witnessed in the different schools, which have caused widespread material losses and other social impacts. The Specific objective was to examine the nature of Student Unrest in secondary schools in Kericho County. The study was underpinned by participative leadership theory and the functionalism theory.
This paper focused on school counselling strategies for resolving disciplinary problems in Nigerian public secondary schools. Disciplinary problems of students interfere with learning, divert administrative time, and contribute to teacher burn out. Schools often respond to disruptive students with exclusionary and punitive approaches that have limited value. Natures of Discipline Problems in Schools, Disciplinary Problems in Secondary Schools, etc were epistemological and empirical studied suggesting strategies which counselors should apply in resolving disciplinary problems in Nigerian secondary schools. Society itself could not function without the exercise of discipline. Using guidance and counseling to enhance discipline must be continuously being practiced if people are to work harmoniously for the achievement of common purpose.
Metrics details. Bullying is an unexpressed part and parcel of medical education but it is largely unexplored in physiotherapy. This study assessed the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of bullying in physiotherapy education in Nigeria. Two hundred and nineteen clinical physiotherapy students from three purposively selected Federal Universities in Nigeria participated in this study. The SPPBQ includes a working definition of lecturer bullying followed by other sections inquiring about lecturers bullying experiences. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics, bullying experiences and availability of adequate policy and support on bullying. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used analyze data.
PDF | On Feb 23, , Oluremi FAREO Dorcas published Bullying in Bullying in Nigerian Secondary Schools: Strategies for Counseling intervention which the individual feels fear or intimidation in addition to ways to bully a fellow student. study, in which , learners participated during.
School bullying , like bullying outside the school context, refers to one or more perpetrators who have greater physical or social power than their victim and act aggressively toward their victim by verbal or physical means. Historically, Thomas Hughes 's novel Tom Brown's School Days details intensive school bullying, but the first major scholarly journal article to address school bullying appears to have been written in Bullying is a subcategory of aggressive behavior that is characterised by hostile intent the harm caused is deliberate , imbalance of power real or perceived power inequality between bully and victim , and repetition over a period of time i. Bullying is thought by some to be associated with an imbalance of power. Bullies also tend to target people with physical impediments, such as speech impediments e.
Почему? - удивилась Сьюзан. - А если ему нужна помощь. Стратмор пожал плечами. - Отсюда я не в состоянии ему помочь - ему придется полагаться лишь на. А потом, я не хочу говорить по линии, не защищенной от прослушивания.
Сьюзан потеряла дар речи. Он пристально посмотрел на нее и постучал ладонью по сиденью соседнего стула. - Садись, Сьюзан. Я должен тебе кое-что сказать. - Она не пошевелилась.
Далекий гул генераторов теперь превратился в громкое урчание. Чатрукьян выпрямился и посмотрел .