conus medullaris and cauda equina syndrome pdf

Conus Medullaris And Cauda Equina Syndrome Pdf

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Average 3. Which of the following most accurately lists the additional symptoms or physical exam findings this patient may have from most common to least common? Tested Concept.

Conus medullaris

It is a clinical subset of spinal cord injury syndromes. Injuries at the level of T12 to L2 vertebrae are most likely to result in conus medullaris syndrome. Patients present with a combination of severe back pain and upper and lower motor neuron deficits, similar to cauda equina syndrome , which include :. The conus medullaris lies in close proximity to nerve roots and injury to this region results in combined upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron features. The features will vary according to the causative pathology and are therefore discussed separately.

The conus medullaris Latin for "medullary cone" or conus terminalis is the tapered, lower end of the spinal cord. It occurs near lumbar vertebral levels 1 L1 and 2 L2 , occasionally lower. After the spinal cord tapers out, the spinal nerves continue to branch out diagonally, forming the cauda equina. The pia mater that surrounds the spinal cord, however, projects directly downward, forming a slender filament called the filum terminale , which connects the conus medullaris to the back of the coccyx. The filum terminale provides a connection between the conus medullaris and the coccyx which stabilizes the entire spinal cord.

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It is edited by Dr. The Journal accepts works on basic as well applied research on any field of neurology. The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two receding years. CiteScore measures average citations received per document published. Read more. SRJ is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same. SJR uses a similar algorithm as the Google page rank; it provides a quantitative and qualitative measure of the journal's impact.

Cauda Equina Syndrome

The spinal cord measures roughly 45 cm in the adult male and 42 cm in the adult female. The lowermost tapering extremity of the spinal cord is called the conus medullaris , which is around the first or second lumbar vertebra and can sometimes be lower. The variation in the position of the conus in adults was studied by Saifuddin et al. This activity attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the anatomy of the conus medullaris; which includes the structure, embryology, blood supply, and nerves along with its clinical importance.

Conus medullaris syndrome CMS arises from a spectrum of clinicopathologic entities representing dysfunction of the lowest level of the spinal cord, termed the conus medullaris, which consists of the sacral segments. There is a subset of spinal cord injuries referred to as spinal cord injury syndromes, to which conus medullaris syndrome belongs, that are grouped by their respective symptomatology, including central cord syndrome, Brown-Sequard syndrome, anterior cord syndrome, posterior cord syndrome, and cauda equina syndrome. While CMS is classically associated with pathophysiologic disruption isolated to the conus medullaris, it may also be associated with a widespread spinal cord process that includes the conus medullaris, which leads to the generalized syndromic symptoms. By nature of its anatomy, this is an illness characterized by both upper motor and lower motor neuron signs and symptoms that manifest in the perineal region and lower extremities. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents.

Epidemiology of cauda equina syndrome. The primary objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics and outcomes of cases admitted to hospital with cauda equina syndrome CES at the Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology IOT from to Secondly, this article is a continuation of the epidemiological work of the same base published in , and will be important for other comparative studies to a greater understanding of the disease and its epidemiology. The following variables were analyzed: gender, age, etiology of the disease, topographic level of the injury, time interval between injury and diagnosis, presence of neurogenic bladder, time interval between diagnosis of the CES and surgery, and reversal of the deficit or of the neurogenic bladder.

Cauda Equina Syndrome

Conus medullaris syndrome CMS arises from a spectrum of clinicopathologic entities representing dysfunction of the lowest level of the spinal cord, termed the conus medullaris, which consists of the sacral segments. There is a subset of spinal cord injuries referred to as spinal cord injury syndromes, to which conus medullaris syndrome belongs, that are grouped by their respective symptomatology, including central cord syndrome, Brown-Sequard syndrome, anterior cord syndrome, posterior cord syndrome, and cauda equina syndrome. While CMS is classically associated with pathophysiologic disruption isolated to the conus medullaris, it may also be associated with a widespread spinal cord process that includes the conus medullaris, which leads to the generalized syndromic symptoms. By nature of its anatomy, this is an illness characterized by both upper motor and lower motor neuron signs and symptoms that manifest in the perineal region and lower extremities.

Sun, Mar 14, Remember me Create Account Reset Password. Iran J Neurosurg. Introduction Cauda Equina Syndrome CES is due to several lumbar and sacral nerve roots dysfunction in the lumbar channel.


The most distal bulbous part of the spinal cord is called the conus medullaris, and Cauda equina syndrome refers to a characteristic pattern of neuromuscular.


Conus medullaris and cauda equina syndrome as a result of traumatic injuries: management principles

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Cauda equina syndrome occurs when the nerve roots at the caudal end of the cord are compressed or damaged, disrupting motor and sensory pathways to the lower extremities and bladder. Cauda equina syndrome is not a spinal cord syndrome. However, it mimics conus medullaris syndrome , causing similar symptoms. Many of these conditions cause swelling, which contributes to compression of the nerves. Cauda equina syndrome like conus medullaris syndrome causes distal leg paresis and sensory loss in and around the perineum and anus saddle anesthesia , as well as bladder, bowel, and pudendal dysfunction eg, urinary retention, urinary frequency, urinary or fecal incontinence, erectile dysfunction, loss of rectal tone, abnormal bulbocavernosus and anal wink reflexes. Urinary retention or incontinence results from loss of sphincter function. In cauda equina syndrome unlike in spinal cord injury , muscle tone and deep tendon reflexes are decreased in the legs.

Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Cauda Equina Syndrome article more useful, or one of our other health articles. NICE has issued rapid update guidelines in relation to many of these. This guidance is changing frequently. The cauda equina is formed by nerve roots caudal to the level of spinal cord termination.

Conus medullaris and cauda equina syndrome as a result of traumatic injuries: management principles

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