basics of computer and its evolution pdf

Basics Of Computer And Its Evolution Pdf

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Basic Computer Concepts Ppt Furthermore, access to a personal computer with spreadsheet or equation solving software would be helpful for readers attempting some of the problems in Chapters 4 to Lesson 22 Access and Excel.

In particular, when viewing the movies you should look for two things: The progression in hardware representation of a bit of data: Vacuum Tubes s - one bit on the size of a thumb; Transistors s and s - one bit on the size of a fingernail; Integrated Circuits s and 70s - thousands of bits on the size of a hand Silicon computer chips s and on - millions of bits on the size of a finger nail. The progression of the ease of use of computers: Almost impossible to use except by very patient geniuses s ; Programmable by highly trained people only s and s ; Useable by just about anyone s and on.

Preview the PDF. It is never too late to start learning and it would be a shame to miss an opportunity to learn a tutorial or course that can be so useful as Evolution of Computer Systems especially when it is free! You do not have to register for expensive classes and travel from one part of town to another to take classes. All you need to do is download the course and open the PDF file.

Basic Computer Concepts Ppt

Yet there are a few elements that have stayed constant and that provide a coherent thread for examining the origins of the now-pervasive medium. The first is the persistence of the Internet—its Cold War beginnings necessarily influencing its design as a decentralized, indestructible communication network.

The second element is the development of rules of communication for computers that enable the machines to turn raw data into useful information. These rules, or protocols An agreed-upon set of rules for two or more entities to communicate over a network. Facebook is a simple example of a protocol: Users can easily communicate with one another, but only through acceptance of protocols that include wall posts, comments, and messages.

Keeping them in mind as you read will help you comprehend the history of the Internet, from the Cold War to the Facebook era. The near indestructibility of information on the Internet derives from a military principle used in secure voice transmission: decentralization The principle that there should be no central hub that controls information flow. Instead, information is transferred via protocols that allow any computer to communicate directly with any other computer. During the Cold War, the U.

Only through the destruction of all the nodes in the web could the data traveling along it be completely wiped out—an unlikely event in the case of a highly decentralized network. This decentralized network could only function through common communication protocols.

These protocols constitute a shared language enabling computers to understand each other clearly and easily. In , the U. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPA began research on protocols to allow computers to communicate over a distributed network A web of computers connected to one another, allowing intercomputer communication.

This work paralleled work done by the RAND Corporation, particularly in the realm of a web-based network model of communication. Instead of using electronic signals to send an unending stream of ones and zeros over a line the equivalent of a direct voice connection , DARPA used this new packet-switching technology to send small bundles of data. This way, a message that would have been an unbroken stream of binary data—extremely vulnerable to errors and corruption—could be packaged as only a few hundred numbers.

Imagine a telephone conversation in which any static in the signal would make the message incomprehensible. Considering the susceptibility of electronic communication to noise or other forms of disruption, it would seem like computer-to-computer transmission would be nearly impossible.

However, the packets in this packet-switching technology have something that allows the receiving computer to make sure the packet has arrived uncorrupted. Because of this new technology and the shared protocols that made computer-to-computer transmission possible, a single large message could be broken into many pieces and sent through an entire web of connections, speeding up transmission and making that transmission more secure.

One of the necessary parts of a network is a host. In a normal network, a specific computer is usually not directly connected to the Internet; it is connected through a host. A host in this case is identified by an Internet Protocol, or IP, address a concept that is explained in greater detail later. Each unique IP address refers to a single location on the global Internet, but that IP address can serve as a gateway for many different computers. This nested structure allows billions of different global hosts, each with any number of computers connected within their internal networks.

Think of a campus postal system: All students share the same global address College Drive, Anywhere, VT , for example , but they each have an internal mailbox within that system.

Now there are over half a million hosts, and each of those hosts likely serves thousands of people. Each host uses protocols to connect to an ever-growing network of computers. Because of this, the Internet does not exist in any one place in particular; rather, it is the name we give to the huge network of interconnected computers that collectively form the entity that we think of as the Internet. The Internet is not a physical structure; it is the protocols that make this communication possible.

A TCP gateway is like a post office because of the way that it directs information to the correct location. Without knowing a specific physical address, any computer on the network can ask for the owner of any IP address, and the TCP gateway will consult its directory of IP address listings to determine exactly which computer the requester is trying to contact. The development of this technology was an essential building block in the interlinking of networks, as computers could now communicate with each other without knowing the specific address of a recipient; the TCP gateway would figure it all out.

In addition, the TCP gateway checks for errors and ensures that data reaches its destination uncorrupted.

Email has, in one sense or another, been around for quite a while. Originally, electronic messages were recorded within a single mainframe computer system.

However, once networks began to develop, things became slightly more complicated. Computer programmer Ray Tomlinson is credited with inventing the naming system we have today, using the symbol to denote the server or host, from the previous section.

In other words, name gmail. This invention of a simple standard for email is often cited as one of the most important factors in the rapid spread of the Internet, and is still one of the most widely used Internet services. The use of email grew in large part because of later commercial developments, especially America Online, that made connecting to email much easier than it had been at its inception. Internet service providers ISPs packaged email accounts with Internet access, and almost all web browsers such as Netscape, discussed later in the section included a form of email service.

Mail provided free email addresses paid for by small text ads at the bottom of every email message sent. Email has revolutionized written communication. The speed and relatively inexpensive nature of email makes it a prime competitor of postal services—including FedEx and UPS—that pride themselves on speed. Communicating via email with someone on the other end of the world is just as quick and inexpensive as communicating with a next-door neighbor.

However, the growth of Internet shopping and online companies such as Amazon. Instead of transferring regular text-based documents, he created a new language called hypertext markup language HTML. Hypertext was a new word for text that goes beyond the boundaries of a single document. Hypertext can include links to other documents hyperlinks , text-style formatting, images, and a wide variety of other components.

This new language required a new communication protocol so that computers could interpret it, and Berners-Lee decided on the name hypertext transfer protocol HTTP. Through HTTP, hypertext documents can be sent from computer to computer and can then be interpreted by a browser, which turns the HTML files into readable web pages.

Modern browsers, like Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox, only allow for the viewing of web pages; other increasingly complicated tools are now marketed for creating web pages, although even the most complicated page can be written entirely from a program like Windows Notepad. The reason web pages can be created with the simplest tools is the adoption of certain protocols by the most common browsers. Because Internet Explorer, Firefox, Apple Safari, Google Chrome, and other browsers all interpret the same code in more or less the same way, creating web pages is as simple as learning how to speak the language of these browsers.

This service would eventually grow to employ over 20, people, on the basis of making Internet access available and, critically, simple for anyone with a telephone line.

In addition, AOL incorporated two technologies—chat rooms and Instant Messenger—into a single program along with a web browser. The most important aspect of AOL was its encapsulation of all these once-disparate programs into a single user-friendly bundle. Tom Zeller, Jr. The first of these browsers to make its mark was the program Mosaic, released by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois. Mosaic was offered for free and grew very quickly in popularity due to features that now seem integral to the web.

Things like bookmarks, which allow users to save the location of particular pages without having to remember them, and images, now an integral part of the web, were all inventions that made the web more usable for many people.

Although the web browser Mosaic has not been updated since , developers who worked on it went on to create Netscape Navigator, an extremely popular browser during the s. However, Netscape had long been converting its Navigator software into an open-source program called Mozilla Firefox, which is now the second-most-used web browser on the Internet detailed in Table Table Source: Courtesy of Net Applications. The web of this period, often referred to as Web 1.

Quite a few of these Internet startup companies went bankrupt, taking their shareholders down with them. Alan Greenspan, then the chairman of the U. The new business models of the Internet may have done well in the stock market, but they were not necessarily sustainable.

In many ways, investors collectively failed to analyze the business prospects of these companies, and once they realized their mistakes and the companies went bankrupt , much of the recent market growth evaporated.

Some lucky dot-com businesses formed during the boom survived the crash and are still around today. For example, eBay, with its online auctions, turned what seemed like a dangerous practice sending money to a stranger you met over the Internet into a daily occurrence. A less-fortunate company, eToys. One of these startups, theGlobe. When theGlobe. The site itself was started in , building its business on advertising. As skepticism about the dot-com boom grew and advertisers became increasingly skittish about the value of online ads, theGlobe.

Although advertising is pervasive on the Internet today, the current model—largely based on the highly targeted Google AdSense service—did not come around until much later. In the earlier dot-com years, the same ad might be shown on thousands of different web pages, whereas now advertising is often specifically targeted to the content of an individual page.

However, that did not spell the end of social networking on the Internet. Social networking had been going on since at least the invention of Usenet in detailed later in the chapter , but the recurring problem was always the same: profitability. This model of free access to user-generated content departed from almost anything previously seen in media, and revenue streams would have to be just as radical. The shared, generalized protocols of the Internet have allowed it to be easily adapted and extended into many different facets of our lives.

The Internet shapes everything, from our day-to-day routine—the ability to read newspapers from around the world, for example—to the way research and collaboration are conducted.

Two years later, in , the invention of the dial-up modem in combination with the wider availability of personal computers like the Apple II made it possible for anyone around the world to access the Internet.

With availability extended beyond purely academic and military circles, the Internet quickly became a staple for computer hobbyists. One of the consequences of the spread of the Internet to hobbyists was the founding of Usenet.

In , University of North Carolina graduate students Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis connected three computers in a small network and used a series of programming scripts to post and receive messages. In a very short span of time, this system spread all over the burgeoning Internet. Much like an electronic version of community bulletin boards, anyone with a computer could post a topic or reply on Usenet.

Usenet was not used only for socializing, however, but also for collaboration. Anyone could register a GeoCities site and subsequently build a web page about a topic. Almost all of the community names, like Broadway live theater and Athens philosophy and education , were centered on specific topics.

Information taken from December 21, This idea of centering communities on specific topics may have come from Usenet. In Usenet, the domain alt. This hierarchical model allowed users to organize themselves across the vastness of the Internet, even on a large site like GeoCities.

What is C Programming Language? Basics, Introduction, History

This is supposed to be a flash animation. You'll need the flash plugin and a browser that supports it to view it. Computer is an electronic device which is used to store the data, as per given instructions it gives results quickly and accurately. We can modify, and use it under the same license. Denial of Services: The main aim of this attack is to bring down the targeted network and make it to deny the service for legitimate users. Generation of the Computer Charlse Babbase is known as father of computer he has invented first analytical computer in year

The operation field of an instruction specifies the operation to be performed. This operation will be executed on some data which is stored in computer registers or the main memory. The way any operand is selected during the program execution is dependent on the addressing mode of the instruction. The purpose of using addressing modes is as follows:. In this mode, the operand is specified in the instruction itself.

Yet there are a few elements that have stayed constant and that provide a coherent thread for examining the origins of the now-pervasive medium. The first is the persistence of the Internet—its Cold War beginnings necessarily influencing its design as a decentralized, indestructible communication network. The second element is the development of rules of communication for computers that enable the machines to turn raw data into useful information. These rules, or protocols An agreed-upon set of rules for two or more entities to communicate over a network. Facebook is a simple example of a protocol: Users can easily communicate with one another, but only through acceptance of protocols that include wall posts, comments, and messages.

PDF | Preface This book was written in order to describe how the original, basic ideas concerning communication, numbering and writing, as developed by.

Basic Computer Concepts Ppt

A computer is a machine that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. A "complete" computer including the hardware , the operating system main software , and peripheral equipment required and used for "full" operation can be referred to as a computer system. This term may as well be used for a group of computers that are connected and work together, in particular a computer network or computer cluster.

C is a general-purpose programming language that is extremely popular, simple, and flexible to use. It is a structured programming language that is machine-independent and extensively used to write various applications, Operating Systems like Windows, and many other complex programs like Oracle database, Git, Python interpreter, and more. It is said that 'C' is a god's programming language.

Алгоритм есть уже у. Танкадо предлагает ключ, с помощью которого его можно расшифровать.

Basic Computer Concepts Ppt

Рассудок говорил ей, что надо бежать, но Дэвид мертвой тяжестью не давал ей сдвинуться с места. Ей казалось, что она слышит его голос, зовущий ее, заставляющий спасаться бегством, но куда ей бежать. Шифровалка превратилась в наглухо закрытую гробницу. Но это теперь не имело никакого значения, мысль о смерти ее не пугала. Смерть остановит боль. Она будет опять рядом с Дэвидом. Шифровалка начала вибрировать, словно из ее глубин на поверхность рвалось сердитое морское чудовище.

Первая неделя оказалась последней. Солнечный удар и инфаркт. Бедолага. Беккер ничего не сказал и продолжал разглядывать пальцы умершего. - Вы уверены, что на руке у него не было перстня. Офицер удивленно на него посмотрел.

Abstract. In this article I discuss the process of producing a computer software system for The next section is a brief introduction to Forth. If you are using Appendix A (a separate PDF file) is a glossary of the standard Forth words used in.

Types of Addressing Modes

El cuerpo de Jesus, el pan del cielo. Молодой священник, причащавший Беккера, смотрел на него с неодобрением. Ему было понятно нетерпение иностранца, но все-таки зачем рваться без очереди. Беккер наклонил голову и тщательно разжевывал облатку. Он почувствовал, что сзади что-то произошло, возникло какое-то замешательство, и подумал о человеке, у которого купил пиджак.

Он выбежал из помещения Третьего узла и направился к люку. Чатрукьяна во что бы то ни стало следовало остановить. ГЛАВА 51 Джабба был похож на гигантского головастика. Подобно киноперсонажу, в честь которого он и получил свое прозвище, его тело представляло собой шар, лишенный всякой растительности. В качестве штатного ангела-хранителя компьютерных систем АН Б Джабба ходил по отделам, делал замечания, что-то налаживал и тем самым постоянно подтверждал свое кредо, гласившее, что профилактика-лучшее лекарство.

Хотя спектакль и показался достаточно убедительным, но Беккер зашел слишком. Проституция в Испании запрещена, а сеньор Ролдан был человеком осторожным. Он уже не один раз обжигался, когда полицейские чиновники выдавали себя за похотливых туристов. Я хотел бы с ней покувыркаться. Ролдан сразу решил, что это подстава. Если он скажет да, его подвергнут большому штрафу, да к тому же заставят предоставить одну из лучших сопровождающих полицейскому комиссару на весь уик-энд за здорово живешь. Когда Ролдан заговорил, голос его звучал уже не так любезно, как прежде: - Сэр, это Агентство услуг сопровождения Белен.

Он в ловушке. Дэвид Беккер умрет.

 - Я рад, что вы живы-здоровы. Сьюзан не отрывала глаз от директора. Она была уверена, что рано или поздно познакомится с этим человеком, но никогда не думала, что это случится при таких обстоятельствах.

Adressing Modes and Instruction Cycle


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